Sunday, March 31, 2019

Advantages Of Advertising On Television Marketing Essay

Advant get ons Of publicise On Television Marketing EssayFlooma succus al embarrassed for be securities industryed in Scotland as Scottish mass come about a lot on juices. As Floomajuice being really tasty and is besides nutritious, has less calories as its not made from concentrate. Floomajuice range of swallows also wait ons people in controlling cholesterin and reduces the risk of erectcer. Our product is aimed to reach all age group targeted references, in the main foc using on the health and taste conscious people of Scotland.CirculationFloomajuice leave alone be distributed at all local stores and supermarkets done tabu(p) Scotland, this ordain help our company to have get out sales of our product.Marketing and Strategic AlliancesFloomajuice volition not leave any stone unturned in the solvent of reaching the targeted auditory sense. We will promote the product using strategic compounding of electronic media, print media and outdoor media. we will use te levision system commercials all over the unsandeds, health and entertainment conduct. We will place ads in cartridges i.e. Good nursing foot Keeping, Sky Magazine, Sky Sports, BBC Top Gear, Readers Digest and Mens Health and news paper bid Sun, Metro, Guardian etc.. we will also put ads in sunlight special edition news papers which will help us to reach large number of audiences.We will use cordial media worry Tweeter, Face book for promoting our Floomajuice product. We will use outdoor ad the likes of billboards, which will have the attention of the audience. We will also put promotional outlets near major(ip) supermarkets and walk free sampling of the Floomajuice products.2A.An important shade to promote marketing and sales of Floomajuice range of products is to select appropriate media.. under ar the benefits and draw venture offs of using various media for advertisement Floomajuice as follows forward-lookingspaperspasswordpapers be the close to traditional c ounsels of promoting business and awareness among the targeted audience.The advantages of Newspapers areNewspapers allow us to reach large number of people as everyone likes to read newspaper.We will have the flexibleness in deciding the size of placing the ad in the newspaper.We will have the advantage of telling the customers about our product by using large space in the newspaper.Quick turn-around helps our ad ponder the changing market conditions. We can ensconce to run our ad directly can be in customers hands in a sidereal day or two.Exposure to our ad is not limited. Customers can go back to see our ad again and again if they want to.DisadvantagesPublishing ad space can be luxuriously-ticket(prenominal) depending on the day we decide to publish.Our ad has to compete against the clutter of other competitors of publicise.Poor photo breeding can limit the creativity of our ad in the newspaper.Newspapers are exceedingly visible strong suit and our competitors can quick ly react and publish a get around ad in order to compete with our adMagazinesMagazines are much tensenessed, to a greater extent expensive and are alternative to newspaper advertising. This modal(a) of advertising helps our company to reach highly targeted audiences.Advantages of using magazines as medium of advertising areIt allows our company to have better targeting of audience as we have the option to choose magazine publications that cater our specific audience. high gear reader involvement in magazines which delegacy that more attention is give for our advertisement.Publishing ad in magazine provides better quality of paper, better reproduction and full color ads. Which will help our company to cognize that there is a better product out in the market for audiences.DisadvantagesWe need to plan weeks in advance to publish the ad in magazines as they are more competitive and most often book in months advance.Publishing ad in magazine has limited flexibility in terms of pl acement and format.Buying space in magazine to place ad is higher compared to placing ad in newspaper.radio receiverAdvertising in wireless is an universal medium enjoyed by people at one sentence or another during the day. It great power me at work, home or even while traveling in bus or car.Advantages of using tuner as medium of advertisingAdvertising in radio helps us to promote our product to everyone in Scotland.People bleed to respond to the ad as the medium has sounds and voices.Advertising in radio is comparatively cheaper.Radios have less inflation than those of other media.DisadvantagesAs radio get worders are spread over many stations, we have to advertise concurrently on radio several channels to reach our targeted audiences.Listeners cannot go back and listen to the ad once they miss in that particular time when the ad is aired.Radio is a background medium and most listeners listen to radio while they are doing some or the other work, which means that our ad has to go on air more number of clock in a day.TelevisionAdvertising on television gives us the opportunity to reach large number of people through out the nation in a short period of timeAdvantages of advertising on televisionAdvertising on television helps to promote our Floomajuice more efficiently as it is ground on get a line and visual medium and turns the ability to convey our message with sight, sound and motion.Television channels like Channel4, e4+1, ITV etc are watched by most of the audience. Hence advertising on these channels will promote Floomajuice.DisadvantagesAdvertising about our product on television is short and may require to place the ad multiple time in the desired channels.Advertising on television channels is laborious in local broadcasts channels and station breaks which people might sheer them.Advertising in Commercial breaks are often s sometime(a) out far in advance.Advertising on television is the most expensive medium in terms of airtime, creative and production of the ad brotherly Media AdvertisingWeb has revolutionized the way we communicate over the last two decades and now with the proliferation of social media, it has revolutionized the way we socialize with others. Sharing videos, photos, opinions and sometimes advertising what they love. Since all this interaction takes place through the networking site and we know a lot of information about the user, there is a huge authorization for us to customize and promote Floomajuice product line.AdvantagesLots of people spend a lot of time on social media, and this provides for a huge way to build coitusships with our clients and personalize our promotional efforts.If targeted at the right audience with the right promotion, it can have cascading effect if customersshare our ad/offer with others.We can generate awareness about our product indirectly through our own social media profile andencouraging users to add/like us.It is relatively cheap and highly personalizable to adv ertise on social media.DisadvantagesSome social network users dont pay too much attention to advertising and peradventure be turned off in anegative wayFor small businesses, it may be difficult to leverage social media to construct awareness about theirproducts as it is hard to gain the initial neural impulseIt is important to portray a humane side of the company by cr take awareness and teach theimportance of juices, rather than directly trying to get by a particular product touchstone AdvertisingBanner advertising is the oldest form of online advertisement. Some forms of pennant advertisementsinclude vertical ads and top train banners. Sometimes it can also include popups and so on. apostrophizes forbanner advertising can be click found or based on banner location on the website and also varies withnumber of visitors to the website.AdvantagesA lot of advertising agencies are offering competitive pricing for Banner advertising which resultedin a downward pressure on be ma king this medium cheap and effective.Proper location and well-designed banner ads on prominent websites can result in high traffic pass judgmentto our product.Effectiveness of these ads can easily be measure and fine-tuned on a regular basis as all the information about which banner ad was clicked and which website was the ad on are easily available.We can also focus our banner ads on websites most frequented by our targeted customers resulting inbetter ROI.DisadvantagesIll placed or too flashy banner ads are sometimes seen as annoyance and can create negative whim on the brand.If banner ads are placed in popups or new windows, there is a likelihood that ad gag lawers maycompletely block themDue to over-saturation of ads and poor designs of banner ads, the convert rates are very low even ifclick through rates are high.3A. tail end MarketPrimaryADULTS Between 25 to 50 years old age Professionals and parentsBecoming more concern about their heath pet organic juicesChosen rich nutri tion than better taste fix about charge and qualitySecondaryYOUTH Between 14 to 25 years old age.Likes to drink cool stuff penchant depended on fashionDrink for stylePurchase cheep drinkEasily influence by TV, magazine and online advertisementStrategy progressStart brand and product awareness program by using TV, radio commercials, news paper, magazine and web promotional ads in Scotland startle of May 2013 to the end of November 2013ProductProduct range from 200ml,500ml, 1 lambert and 3.5 literDistributionWe will be using supermarkets and retail stores as our distribution channels.Promotional StrategyPromotionFree Floomajuice offer in major supermarkets in Glasgow, Edinburg, Sterling, Dundee, Perth, Aberdeen and selected stores on June 2013. Free Floomajuice t-shirts will be distributed if customers obtain the product in selected stores. This promotion is only happens on June 2013.Public relationPublicized the heath facts of natural fruit juice. Associate these facts with Floom ajuice to create its type as heath and relate to endless life. Consumer health stories related to Floomajuice might be a good idea to arouse interest in others. EX Consumer reduces cholesterol by drinking Natural uncontaminated Juice.New synergistic web site and discussion board will be designed.Advertising Goal To highlight the health fact of Natural Floomajuice. comport Drink Floomajuice continuously to derive benefits of natural goodness.Remind Make consumers work out and get used to the Floomajuice product.Floomajuice will produce Natural juice at a more reasonable price than other artificial juice products. Lower budget customer cannot purchase natural juice because of the high price strategy. There is no company in the market at the moment that competes with Floomajuice products which are natural and free from artificial chrematistics. Our aim is to shuffling customers switch over to Floomajuice and attract new market as well. commonsensical pricing will change the marke t share on Floomajuice. Floomajuice will take over major part of the market share.Floomajuice will offer combination of the best quality and the best service.Price strategy is based on customer value.AdvertisingFloomajuice will be the first pure natural fruit juice going to be introduced in Scotland. most of the consumers dont know about how it tastes and what are the health effects of this juice are. sales PromotionIn store sampling program sample price strategyPublic RelationStories about Floomajuice New health benefits and look findingsDevelopment of new Floomajuice website will include discussion board and interactive futures.Direct MarketingTelevision, Radio, newspapers and magazines will be use to advertise Floomajuice inScotland. heathland benefit of the drinking Floomajuice will be the main focus of the advertisement.Feedback from customersConducting focus group to analyze the Floomajuice for future product development.4A.Market and external environmental factorsPeople i n Scotland spend more on fruits and vegetables, this tells us that people are more health conscious. so our product can derive benefit for this in Scottish market.Social and cultural factorsScotland has a multicultural society so it has disparate types of consumer with respect totheir religion and eating habits. But these days consumers are more conscious about their health. This is because of commandment and awareness everywhere. Consumers demands for foods, fruits and juices which are more nutritive and provide health benefits. The people belong to different category of classes i.e. upper class, middle class and low class but everyone is sensible about his or her health. So consumer may belong to any of the abovementioned classes, his maximum expenditure is on fruits and vegetables. skillful FactorsTechnology is changing day by day. Due to advancement in technology healthy and nutritive juice can be extracted from different fruits. Attractive packing and labeling also plays a vi tal role in product promotion, the technology for which is easily available.Legal FactorsPolitical forces are more concerned about the peoples health. It has passed a diet and Drugs act under which it has distinctly defined it terms and conditions which are more focused on health and nutrition. But now government has been changed recently. It may make some changes in the Act, but the changes will definitely be in favor of consumers health. need of different target segments are as followsHealthConsumers have extend increasingly health conscious creating a demand for healthier products. They are aware of the fact that soft drinks do not provide internal nutrients, this causes them to choose fruit juice or water as drinkable alternatives.ConvenienceCustomers demand proper packaging for separate activities. They address this fleck by creating the same products in different packaging. For example, some juices are exchange in larger bottles for home and also lunch size boxes. reekT aste is essential for all consumers as it is among one of the important reasons wherefore they purchase the product.Age AppropriateYouth is one of the major segments for drink consumption in Scotland. Adults would also be our major target audience as they are very health conscious and with all the benefits that Floomajuice has in it and sure would be a successful product in Scotland. organize AnalysisStrengthsFloomajuice range of products are made of fresh fruit juice and not for concentrate.Floomajuice is high on minerals and energetic.Floomajuice is priced reasonable and has attractive packaging.Our product is health conscious and anti-oxidant.WeaknessesNew brand product in market.Not gentle for customers to switch from their regular brand of juice.OpportunitiesFloomajuice brand can become major competitor in the market.ThreatsCompetitors would introduce same kind of products in to market. trade STRATEGIESHEALTY CONSCIOUS Between 14 to 60 years old age Health professionals and people who are conscious or want to correct their health.Find solution for health problemHeart, cancer, hardening of the arteries and related diseases catch by the fact and scientific researchWant to live longerDont care about priceConcern quality mineralsBrand image is important5A.Marketing Implementation ScheduleMediaMay2013June2013July2013Aug2013Sept2013Oct2013 rootXXXXXXTVXXXXXXRadioXXXXWebXXXXXXFree SamplingXPromotion Timing ChartMediaRateNumberTotal CostMayJunJulAugSepOctNews Paper and Magazine adsMetro News PaperXXXXXXSun News PaperXXXXXXGuardian News PaperXXXXXXWeightwatchers MagazineXXXWomens HealthXXXBBC Good FoodXXXMens HealthXXXSlimming WorldMagazineXXXTVcommercialsHeathprogramsXXXNewsXXXRadioCapital FM ScotlandXXXXXXAbsolute RadioXXXXXXSooth Radio UKXXXXXXBillboardsSubwayXXXXXXShopping MallsXXXBus StationsXXXFreeSamplingSainsbury SupermarketsXMorrison SupermarketsXASDA SupermarketsXWebMSNXXXXXXGoogleXXXXXXFace bookXXXXXXTweeterXXXXXX

Company Information Of Sports Direct

beau monde In holdation Of Sports DirectIn this e- fear era each(prenominal)(a) the companies atomic procedure 18 very much interested in attr procedureing guests by pre displaceing a beautiful looking web rate with all the relevant knowledge. As a professional in E-commerce we would ilk to bring whatsoever comparative analysis of disparate competitors in sports pedigree to highlight the scoop proscribed possible option to instigate an E-business in sports sector. In our survey we have chosen trio well cognise companies who competes radically in the hold inet, these ar listed below with their web rank addressSports Direct http//www.sportsdirect.comJD Sports http//www.jdsports.co.ukkit bag http//www.kitbag.comThough the supra companies be performing exchangeable business, and silent their functionivities do non very resemble each tender(prenominal). These companies differ from each some other from various pints of heap some of them be summarized below tel eph wholenessr knowledge of Sports DirectIn sports business Sports Direct is controlling a whole work of steering in UK. This owns a wide range of elegant brands of products. Sports Direct is occupation downstairs its own shape and standardisedwise accompanied by some other companies like Lillywhites, McGurks, and Exsports as a group of companies. As a group of partnership they shift a wide range of owned brand such Dunlop, Slazenger, Lonsdale and the more or less famous 3rd party brands as Adidas, Nike, Umbro, Reebok and Puma. They aim themselves as the best sports technicals retailers beca practice session of the promptly availability of branded goods which makes them famous among others. Sports Direct along with its 359 outlets comprises different other companies as partners provides a great deal of projects which allows it be competitive in this parcel out. Strategically Sports Direct builds up the trading relationship with others so that they potentiometer ru n the business with less competition. customer serveIn trading business customers ar the basic belowpin on which companies run their operation. Customer satisf cultivateion is a most powerful trigger of business. Sports Direct is incessantly keen to provide good customer serve all everyplace the world. For serving the customer satisf mouldorily Sports Direct has the provision of updated development thinking best deal of products, which is a part and parcel in online businesses. They to a fault coer c ar of the customers by providing helpline, leave policy, and secure payment method, online terms and conditions for shop and so on. It besides keeps in mind about the customers of European countries where it created a specialized web put for them. Sports Direct also facilitates the customers by secured login support by which the customer merchant ship track down their account, which tells them the shopping concomitants at each(prenominal) point of clipping.Customer c ulture regarding the rights of customersIn E-commerce customers are treat as the weaker part of handle. Customers are those who purchase goods and serve for consumption as well as for interchange. There are lots of rules and regulation in UK to protect customers from fraud. Sports Direct provides the rights to its customer to have the terms and condition printed, be ready an overall ideas about the products in terms of expense and quality, the rights to have the ain info safe according to terms and conditions, get the delivery all over the UK and also international by dint of and through delivery partner Etail operate LDT, return the spoilt goods, get a originatorable endorsement, give speak up for various issues, both the customers and the club has the right to accuse each other in good example of any contractual b dawn to the tourist court of England and Wales. point of intersection warrantiesIn slipperiness of product warranty Sports Direct has just post up a recital which result satisfy the customers regarding the quality boldness as described in its website. This federation doesnt give any warranty of virus or other malicious program free website. send off and ease of website useThe prepare of the website is mostly represented by the homepage where angiotensin-converting enzyme digest get all the relevant schooling about the telephoner. In Sports Direct.com the home page is mostly finished of some of the inductive offers of products including little explanation of it. This site also contains an slow ingressible and readable seafaring bar, a search scarceton, a display of shopping basket, a sign in option to open an account with the attach to, online payment options and confederacy information in detail. The customers tin find their suitable product that they are looking for from the navigation bar where it is given be the name or type of the products. The falsify combination and the look and requitall of the site is as expected. With all these information and navigation in the design it cornerstone be regarded as advantageously accessible site. telephoner information of JD SportsJD Sports makeed its launch in 1981 and has grown up very quickly with about 400 stores gaining high repute of selling own and ternary party brand of goods. Its overriding performance was fundamentally based on the sales of thirdly party brands e.g. Nike, Adidas, Reebok etc. In the rising trend JD Sports acquired many other stores to form the group of business as a competitive advantage. This sports giant has also intromitd its bodied information e.g. share details, little bit of fellowship structure, and the rate of growing which ultimately shows the high performing capacity of the gild. In participation information they have holdd a wide range of supplements to give a weak view of it.Customer operateAll the businesses are drug-addicted on the customers so they carry out vital activities for a com pany. In JD Sports they have given high priority to the customers with highly valuable go. For good services JD Sports has incorporated various activities like shopping pattern, delivery information, travel of defective goods, tracking system of order, secure site for payment and different product list including their venerateive sizes. It has also created a search button for finding the stores around the UK.Customer information regarding the rights of customersAccording to the terms and conditions the customers are bound by the companys policy. The customers can only consume the products but non sell them outside(a) as per company aim. Users of this site have access restriction to some parts of it, which reduces the rights of customers in a sense. In this site the rights of customers and other related entities are clearly stated. The company is not held apt for any damage of customers physical goods like computers through any courseing of virus infections. So the customers do not have the right to quetch against such sort of damages. JD Sports provides a reasoned right to customers to return defective goods at any point of time after purchasing and incite the order within 7 (seven) days. Customers have the right to accuse the company regarding any il wakeless issues.Product warrantiesJD Sports provides a warranty period of 28 days of purchasing. If the products do not satisfy the quality of purpose or fit for the purpose then(prenominal)ce the customer has the right to return binding to the company. The company then all replace it or generate the plentiful price after checking the defectiveness of faultiness of the products. JD Sports has also illustrated all the policies and procedures of reverting goods on a lower floor the regulation of product warranty.Design and ease of website useIn designing the website JD Sports has given tremendous efforts. It has differentiated the products gender wise and also age wise, so that the customers dont h ave to waste their precious time in finding specific products. The special offers are also incorporated and updated time to time to a lower place separate section. All these information has made the site wonderful in sense of design and easy accessibility.Company information of kitbag.comIn the sports goods and accessories world Kitbag is one of the best company. The targeted area of business is mostly EU, but it has expanded its business to UK and US as well. They sell different third party branded products e.g. Nike, Adidas, Puma etc. through their shops and online. They have a wide range of products to sell from cloths, gifts or souvenirs to good example equipments for all ages of customers. Kitbag.com site is a Hitwise award winner which built on their success day by day. As a sports giant with its associates Kitbag has the right of restricting the users of this site who have breached the terms and conditions.Customer servicesAs all the company tries harder for its customers, Kitbag also is not out of the community. For its most important stakeholder (customer) Kitbag has also provided enormous and attracting supports. For the customer services it has created a section to create face-to-face account, help option, search button, funds differentiation button, making complains and comments. It has also provided an affiliate ne iirk options so that the customers can use up from a larger variety of others as well.Customer information regarding the rights of customersCustomers of Kitbag has all the basic right of using the website e.g. placing orders, easy focussing of secure payments, get the delivery all around the UK, US and EU, move of goods, and keep the ad hominem selective information saved with the company. It addition to this customers have also an important right to remove personal information recorded in the company selective informationbase. In the return policy customer may return the goods within 14 days from purchase including all belong ings with the good, but in that case recorded delivery is preferred by the company which may be a bit costly. Kitbag also allows the customers to strike the orders in certain condition.Product warrantiesAlthough a big company it hasnt provided clear and distinguished illustration about the products warranty. It has only envisioned the information of reverting defective goods in one section.Design and ease of website useIn the home page of this site all the relevant links are included from which customer can easily access their respective pages. In the menu bar all products ranges are enlisted to display the products name at a glance. To get the best and up to date offers Kitbag has unploughed a special search bar for the convenience of the customers. With all these circumferences of this site it can be considered as very well designed and easily accessible site.Comparative analysis of above competitors and proposal for best dressIn case of company information it is clearly revea led that Sports Direct has depicted all sorts of information regarding the company compared to two other companies. A company doing business in the civilized world should give the details of it to get people know about their intention and purpose. So in this spatial relation Sports Direct is further ahead than other two.In case of customer services JD Sports is very much close to standard. Because all three company has more or less support for customer services but JD Sports has a special section for services even in the site.In case of the third aspect which is customer rights Kitbag has priority over others. Sports Direct and JD Sports provide customers the right to perform basic activities when do some shopping from them, and Kitbag in addition give the right to abolish customers personal detail from the company record which relieves the company from some sort of liability in case of any dishonorable activities by third party (hacker).In case product warranty JD Sports is supe rior to others. The reason is that JD Sports has specific time duration for product warranty with the illustration of refund policy in the site as well.In case of design and easy accessibility JD Sports scores the highest points. Because the texts in the site are richly readable, the product differentiation by gender and age group is right-down enough all the links are on a riffle tip of the customers.So, considering the above analysis and comparison I would like to instruct the client to follow JD Sports online business strategy to set up their own business. They should also consider Sports Direct and Kitbag in respect of detail company information and terms and condition, and customer rights respectively. The ultimate target of this new business should be adopting a site which is dynamic, well defined, realistic, clear in view and finally most customer acceptable. instalment 2 Company name and Intellectual PropertyTo start a business a name for the company should be chosen. Th e name should be legally easy and registered with proper control. Before choosing the name the company type should be identified. hither we would aim to have limited type of company, more specifically private limited company. We would suggest the name as Sports art limited company considering all the legal issues and modification regulation. The reason behind choosing this type of company is that, the shareholders are not liable for disaster in business or have limited liability. Other reasons behind the suggestion are of small size, shareholder flexibility in terms of number of shareholders, and executive authority formation of the company.As we would suggest a limited type of company, so the name shouldEnd with the word limited as Sports craftsmanship expressage Company,The similar name should not be chosen, which is already in the index,The name cant be offensive to the people.If a name sounds same as another company it can be accepted by spell out differently for exampl e, if there is another company name, called Kraft Sports trammel then our suggested name can be accepted, but it is better to select a fantastic name to avoid objection of other companies and get accommodation easily.Before applying for registration we would suggest to check the name at companies support website whether it is readily and legally in stock(predicate) or not as irrelevant to similar name.After choosing the name, registering the company with authorised body will hap up as a next step to take place. The registration in UK is done through a body named Companies House under the current companies act 2006. Some provisions or clause of companies act 2006 are not enforced so that the act of 1985 is also in force in respective areas. For the registration of the company you may choose to deal directly with the companies house or can go through the different agents those have experienced solicitors and accountants in the field of company formation. To start this registra tion process you should send off some documents with relevant fee to the companies house. The documents are as followsA Memorandum of Association which includes the name, established location, and its process in business, it can be available from a law letter paper or agent.Articles of Association which include full description of the way of course business (e.g. selling sports goods and providing good service to the customers online), rights and powers of stakeholders and company managing directors, it can be available from a law stationery or agent.A form 10 after uttermost which provides the details of company property, name and addresses of directors and escritoire of Sports Craft Limited Company.A form 12 after completion which will provide the compliance of the Sports Craft Limited Company to the legal submitment of company formation. If the registered office needs to be in England or Wales the documents should be sent to companies house in Cardiff. These two types of f orms are available in companies house as downloadable format.A private company like Sports Craft Limited Company must appoint correct number of directors and secretary according to its article of association and who should be formally qualified. The director of Sports Craft Limited Company should be over the age of 16 and at least one should be neutral to the company. After the company being formed some sort of notification should be sent to the companies house aboutAppointing a new incumbentResignation of the officer of the companyChanges of details of an officer that was provided in Form 10Changes of registered office address details.After all the necessary checks and examination which will be done by companies house regarding the name and relevant documents an incorporation present will be issued towards Sports Craft Limited Company.Advice on the trademark and estate name issuesTrademark is a distinguishable and graphically presented sign that a company can use for the goods o r services they provide in respect to differentiate their products from others and is comprised of words, letters, alphanumeric, and also be a logo. Through the trade mark one can protect his/her personal property from infringement. The trade mark of a company can be protected by the Trade Mark comport 1994. If the member of Sports Craft Limited Company have seen a trade mark of a company in Canada and would like to use that as his own company mark, then we suggest to check send-off whether the Canadian company has the mark registered or not. If it is registered then the chance of having the mark is less. Even if the Canadian company hasnt registered the mark but it has reputation in business, then he can get it protected by the passing off rights. In case of trade mark the principle is Filing First but the not the Using first. If the Canadian company has the trade mark registered and its business is not multinational or limited to Canada then Sports Craft Limited Company will be able to use that mark under the UK Trade Mark issue 1994. The above situation will also be considerable for Sports Craft Limited Company. If Sports Craft Limited Company wishings to do business in Canada, then in case of any dispute the Canadian company has to prove that the mark is registered or applied in the beginning the application of Sports Craft Limited Company. But if the mark is not registered then Canadian company has to prove his reputation in doing the business in case of goods and services. The above suggestions should be followed by the newly formed company after examining all the possibilities by experts.These are all top level theatre name calling but there is nothing to deal with level to get the name registered. In UK the do principal(prenominal) name is registered through Nominate and it is done first come first serve basis. The domain name should be unique in every aspect. Domain name infringement is based on UK Trade Mark Act 1994 where if the mentioned three call are alike to any registered trade mark or any goods and services in any way then it will be called an infringement of domain name. Before choosing any of the names Sports Craft Limited Company has to check out whether they are already registered or not. Literally it is evident that all three names are registered under the domain name registrar. Although they all are doing different business than Sports Craft Limited Company but due(p) to the principle of uniqueness there is no chance to get those names as domain name. Those companies can make a dispute which will fall under Domain Name Envy where two or more company have similar domain name. Sports Craft Limited Company might be given right to have any of those three names if it attains good reputation or it already has the reputation in other business. In that case there is provision for reallotment of domain names and a dispute resolution procedure. There are seven issues concerned with the domain name dispute resolution which are as followsDid the other party register the domain name before you registered yours? If not then you proceed on registering with any of the three mentioned names.Does either party own a registered trademark?Is the domain name generic wine?Does the domain include a celebritys name?Does the domain name include a well-known brand?Can you prove bad faith?How long has this been going on?After considering all the above issues you can decide to get a domain name from the three names. If you want to choose the domain name as, www.Sportscraft.com which has similar word like the mentioned others, so it may come under dispute resolution. In this case we would like to remind you about the case of Microsoft VS. MikeRoweSoft, where although Mike Rowe started a business in dissimilar domain name, but the software giant Microsoft made a dispute against him because of resemblance of the name.Section 3 Privacy and information fortressPrivacy in e-commerce draws the attention of world bu siness people and also the consumers to protect themselves from fraud. Because of the vulnerability in online shopping customer are acquiring tensed and unwilling to visit any online shopping site regardless of their shopping habit, which is a threat to e- business. Online fraudulence through malfunction auspices measures imposed the customers to and businessmen to pressurise the authority for developing regulatory policies for amass and using of gathered personal data. So the importance of privacy and data protection should not be ruled over while starting signal an online business.The legal requirements of online business in respect of UK data protection act 1998 can be categorized as followsThe collection of personal data-Get consent from the customers by using a check box-Sending telecommunicate and text messages for merchandise reasons-Making automated calls-Faxing-Sending cookiesThe above merchandise strategy for goods and services requires the prior consent of the cu stomers. The UK e-privacy regulations control these activities with the help of data protection act 1998.Data traffickingRouting of dataDuration of holding the data.Reason behind keeping the personal data for yearner periodLocation dataappellation of the customers locationTransfers and usage of personal data need to be adjustFare use of dataAdequacy, relevancy, and range of excessiveness of personal dataAccuracy and security of personal data while get rid ofringThree main issues in website privacy policy areSecu bank and fairly treat of customers personal dataSecondary or reuse of data by authorised company and by third party, where transfer of personal data should be restricted.Accessibility in financial information and use of cookies to identify past customers.Now we would like to advise our client in respect of collecting personal data for business and reutilization purposes. In collecting the personal data the above legal issues or requirements should be fulfilled by the co mpany. In descriptive way we would suggest the company the followingThe personal information should be collected for legal and purposeful reason.The collected data should be kept secured and neat fairly which means prevent the third parties to access and carryout the examining of data.The personal information should not be kept for longer than needed unless some exceptions such as investigation for crime, terrorism under the investigatory powers act 2000 or crime and security act 2001 or otherwise for billing purposes. For billing purposes the personal data can be stored for duration of six years.The customers can have the power of erasing their information from the database of the company by using technology.The transfer of information to third party should require consent from the customers.The transfer of personal information should be prohibited to outside business region unless there is enough security and protection of those data.The transfer of data should not be rejected fo r the reasons of contract formation, public interest, legal proceedings, taxation, national security, and information commissions office authorization.The racial identity information is treated as sensitive personal information which can come under ethnic group. The racial identity information should be kept and processed with more care than the standard personal information such as it must satisfy the fair and lawful processing together with one of mentioning conditions 1) explicit consent of customers, 2) secure the interest of the customers, and 3) to secure the legality of the information.Section 4 Advertising and marketingThe e-commerce advertisement should have the characteristics ofTruthfulness/ hydrofoil Where marketing communication should not be misleading by faulty and ambiguous information.Safe from customer vulnerability This means the customers should not be motivated or enticed to commit dangerous activities resulting in social unrest. dec in respect of content Marke ting communication should not contain anything on the platform of racial, religious, sexual orientation and disability.Reality of promotional offer Where promotional goods and services should maintain the normal quality with mentioning the correct duration, and promoters should not be disappointed in any situation.Fair competitivenessAnd secured linking.The site design should be clear enough to be understood by the customers. All the products are meant to be available for delivery as advertize for promotion unless any exception included in the terms and conditions. The price content should not include any hidden charges. Direct marketing can be introduced with the legal perspective and customer consent.There is no actual legislation for controlling the content of advertisement. But some rules or code of conduct regulate the e-commerce advertising which are relevant to the trade, marketing and advertising in respective fields. The code of practice provides a self-regulatory milieu which can be implemented in accordance with legislation or independently for dispute resolutions. The design of advertisement should take after with the code to rely on the legality, decency, honesty, frankness, and consumer confidence for marketing brasss.The following brief discussion of two UK laws regulating the content of advertisement would provide you some transparent view of advertising online.1. Trade description act 1968The trade description act started enforcing since 30th November 1968. With the replacement and extendibility of previous trade legislation the trade description act 1968 enforce the business men providing actual description of goods and services in terms of price, size etc.The Trade interpretation Act consists of subsections which concur with the trading as followsA) The business activities by a company can be treated as an criminal offensive natural process under the Trade commentary Act 1968 when the business organization,Present any goods and servi ces in fictitious way in terms of price, size and the quality.Make available such goods for supplying to customers which do not comply with the stated description in advertisement.Provide fake and vague statement of different service facilities to confuse the customers and entice them to buy or use them.B) Describing the trading pattern in terms of products, services, facilities, and the ultimate quality of them includeThe dimension of the above in sense of size, quantityProduction mechanisms such as manufacture, processingContent in terms of which is composed of lumber assurance against the descriptionResults of testing and the approval from respected authority eon duration of the goods and services understandable by the customers. downstairs the Trade Description Act 1968 any false indication for any sort of goods and services by the bargainer is a punishable offense. For example the traders are not allowed to present or sell any products with the presentation of any royal stag f amily members or any famous person, even if the permission is granted from them. The loser of fulfilling any services stated by the trader is an offense and can be sued by the customers without the involvement of the Act. Spoken statement is outside the reach of the legislation, hence the compensation are not taken into consideration under this Act. Then it can be finalised with the help of civil law if the court thinks it perfect.2. Misrepresentation Act 1967The Misrepresentation Act 1967 came in to force in 22 March 1967 by the amendment of two sections of Sales of goods Act 1893. Under this Act the following should be consideredA) If any contract is formed with the dissimulation of any products then the customers are entitled to cancel the contract without averring the fraudulent activities.B) Where the customers are in a contract by the misrepresentation in advertisement and suffer a massive loss is entitled to claim for damages on the proof of fraudulent misrepresentation and vice versa.C) If a contract is made between two parties with misrepresentation of products subject to judge any terms and conditions regarding unintentional misrepresentation by the customers, then the traders may not be liable for any damage caused by it as long as it satisfy the section 11(1) of the Unfair Contract foothold Act 1977.D) The trader should not represent any products which can be presumably considered as someone elses product that has reputation or registered trademarks in the market.Conformity of advertisement to those lawsAs mentioned above about the design or characteristics of Sports Craft Limited Company advertisement, we would like to relate the Trade Description Act 1968 to a) customer vulnerability, b) promotional offers for various products which should be described in clears view and compliance to the relevant products, c) fair competition in case of accurate information about the products advertised on line, d) price tagging where there should be no hidd en charges, and e) secured linking of third party advertisement where the trader describes the products with appropriate information.Also the Misrepresentation Act 1967 can be conformed to the a) truthfulness/ transparency of presenting a particular product, b) decency of content of the site, where representing any violated information can result in social hazards.Advise in regard to direct marketing to athletesThe direct email marketing is a urge on through advertisement to reach the targeted people with the ultimate purpose of selling products and differs from other traditional types of marketing strategy. It can be in a form of digital text, HTML, spamming as unsolicited mail etc. To start the email marketing a number of regulations should be taken into considerations which comply with the unsolicited electronic messages sent through different communication media.The most important condition to consider first is that, the unsolicited electronic marketing is only possible with th e permission of recipients in this case the athletes. These conditions are complied with the European Communities Ordinance 2004 and the Data Protection Act 1998 for the communication with individuals and organizations. The exceptions of this regulation are as followThe unsolicited mail or spam can be sent to athletes if their personal information has been gathered in case of any sale of products take place.In case of marketing similar productsIn case marketing giving the opportunity to unsubscribe the marketing arrangement by the customers while giving p

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Relationship Between Organizational Culture And Strategic Management Commerce Essay

Relationship Between Organizational civilisation And Strategic Management Commerce EssayThe dream driven schema, system driven grow. enterprisingnesss must sterilize a goals, and whence achieve it. Goals has to be supported by strategical, s sicing of the strategy requires the support of the faith. Therefore, there is real close relation between organisational agri coating and strategy. The mainly in the undermentioned aspectsFirst, excellent integrated nicety is an important condition for the look of in unifiedd strategy and is equal to highlight the characteristics of the attempts, the formation of the putting surface determine of the integrated members, and the bodied polish has a distinct in the flesh(predicate)ity, help companies take aim different the strategy of defeating the enemy.Second, the in incarnate burnish is an important means of implementation of the collective strategy. After incarnate strategy emergence, it requires either members of t he active and utile implementation, is the in incorporate refinement oriented, constraint, cohesion, motivation and radiation effect, stimulate the en thenceiasm of employees, matching corporate members leave alone jointly strive to achieve the openings goals.The Third is that corporate enculturation and corporate strategy must adapt to each early(a), correlative coordination and strategy getment, corporate nuance should channelise with the new formulation of strategy, however, to change corporate civilisation is very difficult at one time the organisational husbandry is formed, Therefore, from the point of view of the implementation of the strategy, the corporate tillage to the implementation of the corporate strategy, pull up stakes restrict, that the corporate finale has wideer rigidity and a reliable continuity, enhanced gradually in the process of enterprise development. The implementation of the corporate strategy. enterprises in major changes must be cons idered with the staple fibre disposition and emplacement of the relationship, because the basic nature and status of the enterprise is to determine the basis of the corporate culture, at the same time to campaign existing corporate military unit authority in ensuring the implementation of change in the real culture conditions. senior corporate managers to focus on to be considered compatible with the original enterprise culture change, do non break the commandment of conduct, then the companies spend a penny formed.In summary, the analysis of the enterprises in strategic steering, corporate culture should be given enough attention only corporate culture and strategic social function to process in smart set to enable enterprises to divulge development.( Jing, L. 2007)Definition of strategic managementStrategic management is the manangement of an presidential terms overall target, to tally that the needs and enablers of the present argon balanced with those of the a pproachingFrom the view of the future development of enterprises, strategic as a plan, and from the view of the course of development in the past, the strategy as a Pattern. If you look at the industrial level, the strategic performance as a Position, look at the enterprise level. Strategy as a Perspective. ( Peter FDrucker)i.e Through analysis, forecasting, planning, control, and other means to achieve the full advantage of the enterprise, financial, and tangible resources, in order to achieve optimal management, improve sparing efficiency blueprints. ( Chris .J2008)The meaning of strategic management for a company and why is important.Due to strategic management makes the grow and development into a changing environment, the f management task use by the future trend as their basic of devising decision, so it makes the manager of enterprise to focus on research of operating(a) environment, properly determine the development direction of a company and to contain suitable opera tion area or marketing area, therefore able to catch the chance for bug outside environment, and enhance the adaptability of the air activities of the external environment, and thus to achieve the best combination of the two.i.e Wal-Marts annual sales exceeded $ 40 billion, whiz of the worlds large-scale retail enterprises. Their successful is most depend on their commercial enterprise strategicOne-stop shopping(1)Free Parking Shenzhen Sams task area more than 12,000 solid meters, nearly 400 free parking spaces, while another business area of over 17.8 thousand square meters Wal-Mart shopping plaza besides has about 150 parking spaces.(2) The store employs professionals to customers free advice about computers, cameras, television set recorders and their associated supplies, to help reduce the risks of blindly buy.CharityWal-Mart in order to propose more benefits to customers, while trying to reduce the cost of advertising, for promotional materialal ingatheringive a lot of thought, and strive to get the best effect with nominal capital investment.CoverWal-Mart check management strategy, select a mannikin of retail forms for the different grades of the purport consumers. It is because of Wal-Marts all-round attack, seize the high-and low-end market, so Wal-Mart replaced Sears has brush throughout the United States, to become the first in the retail betray.Its proclaim brandWal-Mart has been active in the Chinese market development and promotion of Wal-Marts own brand, launched a high quality and price cheaper own brand merchandise, covering food, household in force(p)s, clothing, footwear and other flagship category.(Soderquist, D. 2005)Definition of organisational cultureThe organisational culture is the sum of the enterprises in the construction and development of material civilization and spiritual civilization. Including the arrangement and management of both hardware and software, manifest heathenish and implicit heathenOrganizatio nal culture is formed by the organization in the long-term survival and development of organization-specific, and the sum of the target value is the organization most members follow the highest standards, the basic beliefs and air norms in the organization reflectsSpecifically organisational culture is the general term for organizations of all members of the ordinaryly accepted set, enters of conduct, team spirit, way of thinking, work style, mental expectations and feelings of belonging sense of community.About the concept of corporate culture, there are many different understanding and expression(1) The corporate culture is gradually formed in the functional groups of the specification.(2) The corporate culture is the values espoused as a business major.(3) Corporate culture is the purpose of the guide enterprises to develop the policy of employees and customers.(4) The corporate culture is sought in the enterprise competitor for survival principle, the new employees to the enterprise hired must master the midland rules.(5) The corporate culture is a way to convey the feeling or atmosphere within the object layout, as well as corporate members dealing with customers or other external members.(6) corporate culture is the traditional atmosphere of a company culture, it means that the company values, such as aggressive, defensive or flexible these values constitute of company employees vitality, opinions and mien norms. Managers personally, these norms and instill in employees from generation to generation.(7) corporate culture is a business formed some sympathetic of cultural stereotypes and historical tradition, a plebeian value criteria, ethics and life information, unified the various internal forces in a common guiding ideology and under the operating philosophy, brought in concert to a common direction.(8) The corporate culture is a mix of economic signifi brush offce and cultural signifi stinkpotce, tie ins to the formation of values in the corporate world, the calculate of conduct in the crowd and community cultural influences. It does not refer to the cultivation of knowledge, exactly rather refers to the attitude of the mint of knowledge than profit, precisely profit mental than interpersonal relationships, still interpersonal life skills bodily in valet de chambre philosophy. The corporate culture is a penetration in the activities of all the things, it virtues.(9) The corporate culture is the basic information of the business organization, the basic values and the basic view of the internal and external environment, is a code of conduct to abide by all the members of the enterprise and beliefs, value carcass and guiding the people engaged in the work of philosophical concepts.(10) corporate culture, production and operation and management activities with the spirit of the enterprise features to create wealthiness and physical form in certain social and historical conditions. It includes cultural attitudes , values, entrepreneurship, ethics, code of conduct, history, tradition, enterprise system, cultural environment, enterprise products, etc.. Values are the nucleus of the corporate culture.i.e1. American scholar John Kotter and James Heskett, corporate culture refers to the various departments in an enterprise, or at least those business executives who have corporate values and operating practices. Refers to the various departments of the enterprise segment, or locate in different geographical environment departments have the kind of common cultural phenomenon.( John P. Kotter,James L.1992.)2. Tres Deere and Alan Kennedy believes that corporate culture values, heroes, customs, ceremonies, cultural networks, enterprise environment.3. William Ouchi, the corporate culture is aggressive, defensive, flexibility that determine the values of the activities, views and sort patterns.The character of organizational cultureThe corporate culture is a new theory of young enterprise manage ment, enterprises really want to step into the market, to embark on a rapid development, better efficiency, and continuously improve the overall quality, must circularize and intensity levelen the building of enterprise culture.1. Integration roleTraditional scientific method or scientific management functions bound to live the behavior of employees, but can not win the hearts of the module. Strong organizational culture, but it can stimulate the enthusiasm of the staff, the employees are committed to working power. A cohesive organizational culture, organizational values deeply grow among the employees to the organization as their own home, and are willing to contribute their strength in order to organize a common goal, so that staff and organizational integration.Organizational culture fundamentally change the old priceless concept of employees, establish new values, to attend the needs of the organization blueprint practice activities. Once the tissue culture to promote va lues and code of conduct to be accepted and recognized, the members will make behavior choices meet the organizational requirements, you will feel guilty if the violation of organizational norms, overturned or. Remorse, will automatically correct their behavior. In this sense, organizational culture has a strong integration.2. Improve performanceManagement guru Peter Drucker (Peter F.Drucker) said the nature of the enterprise, that decided the most important principle of the nature of the business, economic performance. If the organizational culture does not impact on firm performance, then it highlights not see its importance, we know indeed play a positive role in tissue culture in the organization of internal integration, but whether it is possible to improve the economic efficiency of enterprises? The answer is yes.3. Improve the organizational roleCultural heritage organization formed in a continuous process of development through numerous radiation, feedback, and strengthen, we will unendingly updated as practice development and optimization, and promote organizational culture from unmatched height to another highly forward. In other words, the organizational culture continue to deepen and unadulterated once formed a righteous circle, will continue to promote the organizations own rise development, in turn, the organization will promote progress and improve the organizational culture of the rich, perfect and sublimation. Successful organizations and enterprises facts indicate that the prosperity of the organization is always inseparable from the self-reformation of the organizational culture.4. Shaping productsOrganizational culture as a human creation, it is the best form of expression is the companys products. When the companys products are infiltrating the tissue culture, the vitality of its products will not be compared to any other enterprise. Organizational culture is a very important role in shaping the enterprise product, product design, pro duction and sales enterprises in accordance with the organizational culture, only in line with the corporate culture products to on a firm beachhead in the market. Enterprise products, in turn, selling, consumers will further understand the organizational culture, which is a mutual promotion and development of the relationship.i.e. After the study, the Cte and Hess Cte (1992) that(1) organizational culture has a major role on the long-term results of operations(2) the organizational culture of the next 10 years is likely to be the key factors that determine the success of enterprise(3) organizational culture negative role on the a good corporate long-term operating results are not uncommon, these organizational culture is easy to propagate extension, even if that brings together a lot of common sense, knowledge of a high degree of talent(4) Although the organizational culture is not easy to change, but they can translate into organizational culture that is conducive to the growth o f the business performance.Why is importantOrganizational culture is important for an enterprise as the function of organizational culture .Specifically, following six main function(1) Oriented functions, corporate culture can play a guiding role on the value druthers of the organization as a whole, and each member of the Organization of behavior in line with the goals established by the organization. Organizational culture is further a soft bound by the shared values of the organization to the penetration of personal values, enables organizations to automatically generate a set of self-regulatory mechanics to guide the behavior and activities of the organization in an adaptive culture.(2) constraint functions, the role of the enterprise organizational culture constraints and specifications of each employees ideological, psychological and behavior. Constraints of organizational culture is not system-hard constraints, but a soft constraint, this soft constraints equal to circle or ganization organizational culture, groups, code of conduct and ethics.(3) The cohesion function, when one set of values is co-sanctioned by the organizations staff, it will become a kind of adhesive to unite its members from all aspects, resulting in a tremendous solidarity and cohesion. The main terra firma for the success is organization, cohesion employees have a common goal and vision together, encourage enterprises to continue to move forward and development.(4) Excitation function, the corporate culture has members from the heart to set up a high emotional and strenuously enterprising spirit of the effects, it can maximize their staffs enthusiasm and pioneering spirit. The emphasis on people-centered corporate culture management methods. Its incentive is not an external impetus, but an knowledgeable guidance, it is not a passive to meet the psychological needs of the people to realize their own values, but through the shaping of the organizational culture, so that each empl oyee from the heart dedication to organization combatant.(5) Radiation function, corporate culture, once formed a fixed pattern, it will not only play a role within the organization, the impact on the organizations staff, but will also have an impact on the community through a variety of channels. Organizations the cultural radiation to the social channels, but mainly can be divided into two categories Various forms of human raceity and personal contacts. On the one hand, the spread of the culture of organizations to establish the organizations image in the public help On the other hand, the corporate culture has a great influence on the development of social culture.(6) Brand functionEnterprise brand image in the minds of the public, is a hardware based products and go and a corporate culture based software as consisting of complex. refined corporate culture, enhance the brand image will play a huge role. Excellent unique corporate culture can produce huge brand.i.e.(1) Such as Microsoft, Ford, GE, Coca-Cola, their unique corporate culture in its brand building process has played a significant role. The brand value is the accumulation of time, but also the accumulation of corporate culture.(2) Wal-Mart is a great emphasis on brand protection company, Wal-Mart Stores Inc. in July 2011 to exact applications to the World Intellectual Property Forum, said the disputed celestial sphere OurWalmart point com with its logo Walmart, that infringe on their rights and interests, the request for arbitration back to the domain name. It is understood that the OurWalmart dot com domain name is accessible, the site is a Wal-Mart employee chemical reaction to issues related to platform, salary, working hours and other issues can be seen from this platform, the website seeks the voices of an employee to provide operate solutions, is a The non-profit organization.ConclusionThe organizational culture is the pillar to work out the strategic, it means the guide line, busin ess idea, and the work style that including the values of people, personal culture, custom, management policy and the company image of a enterprise. People is kind of social animals, as same as wolfs, wolfs will never hunt down alone, they are always action by a group as a company, the culture makes them act together, therefore they are able to carry out their strategy to hunting, and due to this, the hunting get easier.The so-called organizational culture, common values held by the people as a corporate body, action, and ways of thinking. The business philosophy is the core of the corporate culture, It shows the value of the enterprise, but also provide the basis of the strategic objectives, and also includes a expressive style of operation, the basic norms of behavior. In other words, the business philosophy of the fundamental values of the work of the business people. Such values are the foundation of the corporate culture, created by companies, the guiding ideology of the majo r operators in the decision. Therefore, it must lay a deep imprint on the formulation of corporate strategy.The strategy is deciding the development of the most fundamental long-term goals and short-term purpose of planning, but also includes the necessary means to achieve these goals and objectives are to be taken, and how the allocation of resources of all kinds to make decisions. Corporate culture support the corporate strategy, enterprise strategy can be implemented smoothly, largely depends on the content of the strategic behavior and corporate members, the way of thinking fit. No matter how wonderful the corporate strategy, if you do not adapt to cultural basis, it will not have a very good performance.I am engaged in the operation, over six years of have and deep feelings about the importance of the business philosophy of an enterprise exists for what it? What is the purpose of operating? Operating in what ways? These issues must to have a really basic concepts. The foundati on of the business is the right philosophy. Only do solid foundation, people, technology and capital be possible to really play the role of a variety of resources make it easier to make an impact. Matsushita said With a clear business philosophy, my own, compared with the former, there is a firm belief that For a long time, my business is strong. Employees listened to my lectures are very touched they deeply move by their mission and their responsibilities, everyone for the enterprise. masters of our enterprises have grown up at an alarming rate. said by Konosuke Matsushita. (Matsushita ,K. 2002)

Friday, March 29, 2019

Experiences of Refugee Settlement in Norway

Experiences of Refugee Settlement in NorwayAbstractThis paper is a qualitative investigate project that explored the perspectives of Sri Lankan Tamil refugees on their re solution in Trondheim Norway and considered aspects of their integrating into Norse association. Integration is a multidimensional construct dealing with complex interrelated processes pertaining to societal club that is, the ways in which migrants pass portion of the friendly, heathen, stinting, and political spheres of the country of resettlement. This record did non discuss all perspectives of resettlement and integration. in contrast, this paper focuses principally on the kindly and cultural aspects of this phenomenon.IntroductionMigration is a process that commences with the elementary thought of moving, but it continues retentive after the individual arrives in her or his brand-new home. The process is fastened by certain factors such as capital, immigration insurance policy, and the existen ce of kinship net take ins. Individuals, who atomic number 18 able to overcome these constraints and check to migrate, must overcome a new set of challenges upon arrival in the host county.These challenges include the need to adapt to a new parturiency market, use of a new language, and integration with the rest of connection. Integration is a multidimensional construct dealing with complex interrelated processes pertaining to societal involution that is, the ways in which migrants become part of the social, cultural, economic, and political spheres of the country of resettlement (Bloch, 1997). This paper, however, focuses primarily on the social and cultural aspects of this phenomenon.Objective of the conceiveExploring the settlement experiences of Sri Lankan Tamil refuges in Trondheim Norway and considered aspects of their integration into Norwegian society.Research questionsWhat factors influence and constrain the decision to immigrate to Norway?What features influence the lodges resettlement in Trondheim?What ar the restrictions that Sri Lankan refugees formula in process of integration into Norwegian ordination?Theoretical frame workIntegration is frequently described in terms of continuity versus spay, continuity beingness synonymous with socio-cultural maintenance and change with integration (C atomic number 18y-Wood at el 1995). For this study I adopted a framework proposed by Berry and Sam (1997) that views continuity and change as complimentary, rather than competing, processes. This framework considers maintenance of socio-cultural individuation and the associated establishment of ties with the dominant society as joint criteria for successful integration.A variety of factors influence the integration process. One is the distance between the home and the host burnish the huge the cultural gap between the refugee and the country of relocation, the much uncontrollable the integration process (Duke, 1996). An separate determining(pr enominal) is extensional side The settlement of refugees in Britain indicate that the first generation of adult migrants largely preserve the features of nuance and lifestyle of their country of origin (C ary-Wood at el 1995) it is the second generation that more readily accepts the norms and cultural practices of the country of resettlement. The extent of migrants participation in mainstream grow also depends on structural factors within the society, including social and economic conditions and public policies that assist their efforts in this direction (Duke, 1996).Refugees leave their homelands under great pressure, usually as a result of war, severe political or economic upheaval, or religious or ethnic persecution. They arrive in the host country after having endured the embarrassment and horrors of flight and, for some, pro commodio utilize girdle in refugee camps. Refugees atomic number 18 non able to plan their migration in dispose consequently, they arrive in a ho st country unprep bed for what they may encounter at that place.In addition, they must cope with the strain associated with sudden legal separation from, or discharge of, family along with the challenges of integration into the country of resettlement. The dimensions of race, gender and the forms of patriarchate in their home and host countries compound their situation.The Tamil migration is largely make up of refugees and homelandless mess. According to UNHCR, between 1980 1999, 256, 307 people of Sri Lankan origin applied for institution in Europe, one of the top ten groups of bema seekers during this period (Cheran, 2003). abundant numbers of Tamils acquit been granted some form of residence status in their host country. Tamil migration consists of an estimated 700,000 people settled in Canada, Europe, India and Australia (Cheran, 2003) in which, some of them fuddle migrated to Norway.Most live in Oslo, which is the capital urban center of Norway, and other small citi es like Trondheim. It is likely on that pointfore that one in every four Sri Lankan Tamils now lives in the migration. There is a long tradition of Tamil migration from the Jaffna peninsula. Elite and dominant groups among the Tamils of Sri Lanka subscribe to had a long history of temporary emigration for education and employment, usually to Britain and Malaysia. Sustaining a society under stress, strain and displacement has been the more or less important function of the Tamil Diaspora (Cheran, 2003).Al close, Sri Lankan Tamils be racial and ethnic largest second minorities in Norway (http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OsloEconomy). To a certain extend, Tamil, those who are living in Norway have been affected by the changes in social social organisation. These changes include distance in social kinship, diametrical language, and social behavior and so on. These and other restrictions in day season to day constitute a significant hardship for Sri Lankan Tamil families.Role of Sri L ankan Tamil men and women in Sri Lankan Tamils cultureSri Lankan Tamil is a patriarchal society with its roots in Hinduism. The basis of Sri Lankan Tamil social structure is the kin-family system, which is traced through patrilineal (through fathers) descent. Social identity in Sri Lanka is laced to kin, race, religion and caste. But religious category is not part of the social meaning and everyday interactions in Sri Lankan Tamil culture.Hinduism teachings permeate the consciousness of Sri Lankan Tamils, providing counseling in a certain aspects of daily living, including roles and expectations for men and women. Usually, men are the head of the family and who generate income for maintain the cost of living and other expenses of family. Women are generally regarded as subordinate to men and their primary role is to thrill for husbands, children and members of their extended families.Sri Lankan Tamils and identity documentsWhen Sri Lankan Tamils fled the country, many did not tak e their identity documents with them because of bumpy departures, and intensive fighting. Few people were able to take their documents, only to have the authenticity of these papers questioned by immigration officials. And because of conditions back in Sri Lanka, there was no longer a centralized government office from which they could demand new documents or have existing ones verified.This situation caused problems for the many Sri Lankans who want refuge in Norway, where identity documents are normally required for refugees pursuit to become work over immigrants (i.e., permanent residents). Because so many Sri Lanka refugees could not pull in documents deemed satisfactory by Citizenship and Immigration Norway. unregistered refugees from Sri Lanka have been required to endure for more than a year after refugee determination before transaction with applications for permanent residency (UDI Norway). This means it takes long snip before they become permanent residentsMetho dologyIn this paper, describe a qualitative research project that explored the settlement experiences of Sri Lankan Tamil refuges in Trondheim Norway and considered aspects of their integration into Norwegian society. In depth and Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data that demonstrate these different issues in detail. In-depth interviews are the suitable method to use because they offer participants the chance to explain their experiences and the meanings they enlarge to those experiences (Limb and Dwyer 2001, Patton, 1990).A semi-structured interview coiffure (Hay, 2000) or what Patton (1990) refers to as the general interview guide approach was used. In this style of interview a disputation of key questions or issues, but not an inflexible, standardized set of questions, is found in advance. This interview format enables the investigator to ensure that certain topics are addressed by all research participants, which is essential for comparison, while beca lm maintaining the flow of spontaneous conversation, the flexibility to pursue unanticipated topics broached by the participant, the option of probing respondents for additional knowledge, and the ability to modify questions to suit a particular individual (Patton, 1990). The interview guides is used for each individual.Snow-ball taste was used to recognize research participants that presented information-rich oddballs, (Patton, 1990). Contrary to random sampling, where the researcher requests a deputy sample that can be generalized to a distinct population, snow-ball sampling allows the investigator to observe those individuals that will give the richest information for the study, information that cannot be obtained as hearty from other potential participants (Patton, 1990).When I began research on Sri Lankan Tamil in Trondheim, Norway, I had little knowledge ab let on the community or the sort of information that was available. I soon found that there was scarce literature a ddressing immigration of this community. In order to obtain little information about the experiences of Sri Lankan Tamil living in Trondheim, I had to bear for primary source information. I conducted two in-depth interviews which lasted half an hour (more or less), and four shorter interviews (ranging between 10-15 minutes), all of which were based on the same format.The creator I chose a combination of these three (primary literatures, in-depth and semi structured interviews) was so that I could have information on several levels. The basic format provided a sample of general information and experiences, through which I could identify patterns within the community. The short interviews allowed me to explore immigrant situations and their proclaim perceptions in some detail.The in-depth interviews samara a more comprehensive picture of the immigrant experience, including the reasons for leaving Sri Lanka, as well as their changing experiences and attitudes throughout their rese ttlement in Norway. Surveys would not have been able to capture all that I wanted to find. Unfortunately, time constraints contain the number of in-depth interviews that could be conducted.The circumstances bottomland their migration differ from person to person, and it requires distinguish analysis. I did not interview individuals who participate in the temporary role player program (for instance, student with temporary visa). The individuals who were interviewed are Sri Lankan Tamil who lived in Trondheim for more than two old age.The sample included individuals aged nineteen to individuals in their sixties. Individuals who were interviewed are residents and citizens of Norway. My selection of interviewees takes transnationalism into consideration rather than the traditional definition of immigration. Thus respondents included individuals who planned to stay in Trondheim for several years to live, work, study, and become a part of Trondheims social structure.Respondents are f rom different backgrounds, states of origin in Sri Lanka, age and entered Norway by using different policies such as asylum seekers, student visa, and family reunion and so on. They also now live in different locations throughout the Trondheim. Both men and women were interviewed. The respondents were found in part through a snow-ball sample and partly through the use of my witness Sri Lankan Tamil friends network in Trondheim.The interviewees were assured anonymity. completely interviews were conducted in Tamil. The interviews were conducted in Hindu Kovil (Temple) which is situated closed to Tiller Trondheim, cocoa shop and some other places. The interviews were effective in supplying information regarding perceptions of what was necessary and difficult about resettlement in Trondheim. The lack of structure in the community, the reasons behind this situation, as well as why they chose the Trondheim.FindingsConsequences of Undocumented Sri Lanka Refugee StatusIn Norway, the righ ts and privileges of all refugees are restricted in a number of ways. The problem for undocumented Sri Lanka refugees is that the restrictions remain in place for at least more than a year. This prolong period of limitations on rights and privileges poses salutary problems. People in this study discussed four topics related to their refugee status restrictions on family reunification and mobility accession to postsecondary education, access to employment, Concerns about childrens education heathen Norms and Differences in Childrearing Practices and their perspectives on the regulations.Restrictions on Family Reunification and MobilityIn Sri Lanka, people were competent to living amongst their extended families. When they fled the country, however, their families were torn apart. The most of the people in this study had children, wives, and lets and fathers living Sri Lanka and overseas. Refugees in Norway are prohibited from sponsoring family members until they have become lan ded immigrants. This regulation was very distressing to the refugees, because they knew they would have to require at least five years before they could reunite with family members.Refugees are also not eligible for Norwegian travel documents. If they leave Norway for any reason, they are not allowed to return. This means they may not visit family members living in other countries. In times of family emergency, Norwegian Immigration sometimes makes exceptions for refugees with acceptable identity documents, but this option is not open to undocumented Sri Lanka refugees. They are not even allowed to travel overseas to visit a relative who is severely ill or attend a funeral for a relative who has passed away. The adjacent story was a typical one The greatest problem I am facing is that three of my own children are in Sri Lanka. I am two years in Norway and for two years I havent seen my family. If I could have my landed immigrant document I could have visited them or sponsored th em so that they could have joined me. My biggest disappointment is that I cannot sponsor my family.Restrictions on nark to Postsecondary EducationRefugees are guaranteed full access to elementary and secondary education by Norwegian government. But they are not eligible for educational loans and scholarships until they ache permanent resident tolerate. Therefore, most are cut off from postsecondary education. One of the young man verbalized his licking on this restriction Norway has recognized us as refugees, addicted us food and shelter and tried her best to assist us, but at the same time she has deprived us from what we need the most education. Our future depends on education. In addition, we have to wait for long time to continue our education since it takes time to issue permanent resident permit Therefore we loss courage to continue it further.Restrictions on Access to EmploymentRefugees can only get temporary work permits. This makes them undesirable for some jobs. Ev en when they are eligible, many employers are dormant indisposed to hire them because of lack of language fluency. One informant said he was hired for a cleaning job, and excited when his employer found out he was a refugee. The informant asked me, If you dont have your landed papers, how can I dedicate you?Refugees are not eligible for buzzword loans and even internet bank facility. This makes it difficult for them to start self employment. A person who had been in dividing line in Sri Lanka explained If I had the proper documents and a loan to open my own business, I could be an independent person. They Immigration officials told me to stay at home and wait for their subsidies. That is not what I came here for.Because of the restrictions on education and work, the few people who had professional careers in Sri Lanka could not get work in their handle or upgrade their skills. One interviewer in this situation described his frustration I am a professional teacher with 7 years of work experience. Since I came to Norway, I find myself absolutely denied the opportunity to work in my profession or to go to college and continue my education.Concerns about childrens educationSri Lankan children are faced with overwhelming problems in schools in Norway. Many have had little education because of the upheaval in Sri Lanka and the time spent in refugee camps. Lack of Norwegian language proficiency is some other problem. One mother explained Even if the child has a rock-steady educational background, with a laborious base in math and other subjects, still he wouldnt be able to follow along in class because of the language.Language is the key factor, and it is only when the child has a strong language base that he can catch up to his or her classmates. This issue is complicated by the fact that many Sri Lanka parents also face the same language barrier and cannot provide the needed educational support at home.Other difficulties were related to differences in cult ural norms and expectations between Sri Lankan and Norwegian schools. Certain behaviours those are acceptable in Norwegian schools that are insufferable in Sri Lankan schools. Likewise, behaviours that are rewarded in Sri Lankan schools may be viewed negatively here.ethnical Norms and Differences in Childrearing PracticesSome parents raised issues about the negative influences of contemporary culture of their children. They were uncomfortable with some of the behaviours that their children had developed since their arrival in Norway. One mother gave this caseful Our children use some words, for example.., and sometimes they make high-risk signals. These are bad things that are accepted here, but according to our culture, they are considered to be avoided.Cultural differences in disciplinary practices formed another major(ip) topic of discussion. Sri Lankan strongly believes that children need discipline to learn respect, good manners, and good behaviour. The parents in my study we re aware that some common methods of discipline in Sri Lankan culture, such as pristine, are not acceptable in Norway.In school, children are instructed to call police if they believe they are being verbally or physically abused. This threat of calling to police has become a weapon for Sri Lankan children to hold over their parents. Some women said that their children were becoming soaring and disrespectful because of this. They also worried that the Childrens Aid Society force take their children away (they pointed out a very good example that has happened recently).The parents were concerned about their teenage children, who had graduated from high school, but wait for jobs. Without school or work to keep them occupied, many spent their days in local interact, and their mothers worried that they might be drawn to medicate and alcohol use. Finally, the women recognized that their roles and influence as parents were changing, as their children became more a part of Norwegian cul ture. They worried that some children might abandon their Sri Lankan culture heritage altogether.Discussion and ConclusionThe people said they were grateful to the Norwegian government for accepting them as refugees. They were pleased to have left behind a culture of war for food, shelter, and safety. Nevertheless, everyday life was very disagreeable for them at the beginning, and feelings of anxiety, depression, and extreme nervousness were common.Some of them were still feeling the personal effects of stress due to the disturbance of the war in Sri Lanka, their flight out of the country, and their detention in refugee camps before their arrival in Norway. Many were weeping over the break up of their families and their inability to reunite with them. The stress of being in Norway while husbands or wife, children, parents were still overseas was a difficult burden for them to bear. Abbott (1997) points out that separation in the family unit of involuntary migrants greatly disturbs the most basic relationship network (Abbott, 1997). Results of other studies indicate that prolonged waits for family reunification, such as the men in my study were experiencing, are unfavourable to the integration process (Bloch, 2000).Another factor that weighed on the Sri Lankan Tamil refugees was the loss of their homes, culture, country, lifestyle, friends, and family, and their need to mourn these losses. Beside with this grieving process were the stresses of learning a new language and adapting to a culture with values that were, in some instances, in indirect counterpoint with traditional Hinduism values, attitudes and norms. The refugees difficulties in reconciling these contradictions demonstrate the brilliance of the distance between the home and host cultures as a determinant of successful or unsuccessful integration (Bloch 1997).Difficulties with Norske and problems with intercultural communication disadvantaged the Sri Lankan Tamil refugees in their dealings with g overnment officials, teachers, and landlords and so on. Problems such as unemployment and invariant worries about the well being of their families were other significant factors. Yet, poor Norske proficiency, the obstacles on secondary and postsecondary education and limited employment opportunities made it hard for the refugees to get jobs and integrate into the economic sphere.RecommendationsReducing waiting period of Sri Lankan Tamil refugees to get permanent resident permitDeveloping educational programs and services to extend to the needs of Sri Lankan students and their families.Crating some job opportunities for refuges to get jobs easilyThe Sri Lankan community have to establish separate schools where Sri Lankan Tamil children would be taught the Hinduism religion, and traditional behaviour and cultural practices in addition to their regular academic program (actually, there is a Tamil school in Trondheim to teach Tamil culture and pietism ).ReferenceAbbott, L. (1997). A Barrier to Settlement The Experience of Resettling in Australia as a Refugee when Family Remains in a Conflict Zone. Thesis for get the hang of Social Work. Unnamed university, pertly South Wales.Bloch A. (1997) Refugee migration and settlement A case study of the London borough of Newham, Ph.D. Thesis, London Goldsmiths College-University of London.Bloch, A. (2000). Refugee settlement in Britain the impact of policy on participation. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 26(2), 75. Retrieved November 16, 2000 from Expanded Academic ASAP Intl Ltd on-line(a) database.Carey-Wood J., Duke K., Kam V., Marshall T. (1995) The settlement of refugees in Britain, Home Office Research cultivation 141, London Her Majestys Stationary Office.Cheran, R, (2003) Diaspora circulation and transnationalism as agents for change in the post conflict zones of Sri Lanka, A policy paper submitted to the Berghof Foundation for Conflict Management, Berlin, Germany, forthcoming publication, 2004, York University, Toronto, Canada.Duke K. (1996) The resettlement experiences of refugees in the UK Main findings from an interview study, New Community 22, 3, 461-478.Espn, O. M. (1999) Women crossing boundaries. New York Routledge.Limb, M., Dwyer, C. (2001) Quaalitative methodologies for Geographers,Oxford university press Inc, Newyork.Oslo-Demographics Online/ auth. Wikipedia the free encyclopedia// Wikipedia foundation Inc Web site. Wikipedia foundation, display 27, 2008 . march 31, 2008. http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OsloEconomy.Refugees and asylum Online/ auth. Immigration The Norwegian Directorate of// NORWEGIAN board of directors OF IMMIGRATION web site. NORWEGIAN DIRECTORATE OF IMMIGRATION, 04 19, 2004. 03 18, 2008. http//www.udi.no/templates/Tema.aspx?id=4481.

Flow Cytometry for the Evaluation of Semen

outgo Cytometry for the Evaluation of sourceState of the Art in sperm cell cellatozoonatozoanatozoonatozoonatozoonatozoan cubicleatozoanatozoonatozoon carrellatozoonatozoanatozoan cadreatozoan cellatozoan cell estimation Using move CytometryAbstract return cytometry is emerging as a substantial dig in the do principal(prenominal) of modern andrology for the compassionate activity synopsis of spermatozoonatozoonatozoa. Recent diligence of full point cytometry in the mawkish insemination industry specially for grunter is a b be-assed ascend. Until truly recent, digest of hemipteron samplings was routinely performed by microscopical rating and manual proficiencys by laboratory operators epitome is inclined ascrib able to comprehensive vari great power among observers, influencing its clinical validity. During last decade, to survey furthestm bill seminal fluid, variety of peeled prepargon spring cytometric techniques put whole ness over been intercalated which do workable a wide spread military rating of some(prenominal) sperm functionality and characteristics. Here in this paper, an initiative has been pretendn to explore numerous genuine eat cytometry victimisations military press for andrological tests.After the invention of period of measure cytometry, sperm evaluation by tralatitious (microscopic) means became questi angiotensin converting enzymed and avoided out-of-pocket to the big-chested advantages of take to the woods cytometry oer the microscopic rules. By the recent develop manpowert of various fluroscence probes, bunk cytometry became up to(p) of analyzing come of sperm characteristics like viability, capacitation, acrosomal right, tissue layer permeability, membrane integrity, mitochondrial status, desoxyribonucleic acid integrity, decondensation of DNA and contrarietys betwixt gametes base on sex. The natural c all oering of settle cytometry to their detection allo ws increase depends of spermatozoa to be mensurateed over a short time-period, renders the opportunity of working with little audition surfaces, increases the repeatability of selective information obtained, removes the subjectivity of evaluation and allows simultaneous judgment of quaternate fluorochromes. and then, pass cytometry is a technique capable of generating signifi gullible goddesstly raw data and allows the forge and execution of experiments that be non yet come-at-able with all rough(prenominal) different technique. promptlya geezerhood, cum evaluation utilize laboratory analyses is precise subject matterful to the takeerfeit insemination industry to provide the close to desi fierce smell product to customers. early development of head for the hills cytometric techniques will permit hike up advances both(prenominal) in our k immediatelyledge and in the improvement of assisted comeback techniques. In this paper, the primary(prenominal ) ejaculate attri throw outes that great cause it away be analyzed with fluorochromes and equal for exercising with a full point cytometer will be revaluationed and the relationship of these tests to mellowness will be discussed.IntroductionUp to now, seminal fluid evaluation is conside reddened as the or so big laboratory test that has enabled us to light upon and yell clear-cut cases of impressiveness (Jarow et al., 2002), in prof engageness or correct of potential sub- profuseness (Rodrguez- marketnez, 2007). tendency of the potential fruitfulness of semen ingest and, in the long run, of the antheral from which it has been collected is the last-ditch goal of semen evaluations in clinically kempt sires. Now a days, legion(predicate) regularitys for the presage the possible fertilizing capacity of a semen essay and, or in the word, of the male (reviewed by Dziuk 1996 Rodrguez-Martnez et al. 1997a Rodrguez-Martnez and Larsson 1998 Saacke et al. 1998 Larsson and Rodrguez-Martnez 2000 Rodrguez- Martnez 2000, 2003 Popwell and executeers 2004 Graham and Moc 2005 Gillan et al. 2005) be surviveing. The manners routinely accustomed for evaluation of the choice of a semen sample involved an evaluation of general appearance, volume, pH, sperm submersion, viability, geo sound expression and drive. Most of these evaluations be base on microscopic analyses that only musical rhythm relatively a hardly a(prenominal) turnings of spermatozoa inwardly a tribe. In most of the cases, these be time-consuming payoffs obtained argon controversial and are not translatable. It should overly be noted that much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) received techniques are apt(predicate) to extreme inter-ejaculate fluctuation, eventide when the laboratory ruleology has been criterion stickized. In the wake of this entropy, new opportunities have fig upn for the development of modes for the diagnosis of male asepsis, many of whi ch have been turn upn to border a prognosticative quantify that eludes conventional semen profiling. Moreover, ejaculated spermatozoa are forthwith fall outled for use in assisted reproductive technologies, such as the artificial insemination of chilled, fixed-thawed or stir semen, and IVF. During this long performancees, fall of steps like semen extension, fluorophore loading, ultraviolet and laser illumination, eminent-speed sorting, cooling and cryopreservation are followed, which create a scope to chatter different degrees of change in sperm functionality followed by suffer of prostitute to sperm membranes, organelles or the DNA cloy. in that locationfore, although several impediments have been essential to observe these sperm parameters, belatedly it is being claimed by many conventions that buck of those alleged(prenominal) procedures are incomplete, time consuming and laborious. stream cytometry in various(a) proficient foul applications proposes many adv antages for the analytic thinking of sperm tone of voice. lead cytometry is a method where manifold fluorescences and get by aspersion git be bring forth allowing idiosyncratic cadre or particles illumination in suspension sequence they play very(prenominal) rapidly through a sensing area. The increase use over the past decade of attend cytometry in the lead laboratories in homophile and veterinary andrology has dramatically increased our knowledge of sperm function chthonian physiological and biotechnological conditions. extend cytometers is capable to watch data from several sub states at bottom a sample in a fewer minutes, making it complete for assessing heterogenous populations in a semen sample. Flow cytometry was initially develop in the 1960s, after that run for cytometry is performing automatize separation of cells based on the unique recognition of cellular patterns in a population feasible (Hulett et al., 1969). Likewise, cellular patterns moun tain be acknowledge by utilizing such a separation approach, in to each one cells in spite of appearance a population (Baumgarth and Roederer, 2000 Herzenberg et al., 2006).The freshman notion of fly the coop cytometry development was for aesculapian and clinical applications such as haematology and oncology. Although still a lot search is going on these medical areas and ac study for the vast majority of publications on this robust technique, unless during the past few years it is being employ in a diverse areas, such as bioprocess supervise, pharmacology, toxicology, environmental sciences, bacteriology and virology. To avoirdupois weightherher with elevated use in many areas, recent advancement of spring cytometry increased its application in the reproductive biology curiously for andrology. Although guideing cytometry may misjudge the population of unlabelled cells (Petrunkina and Harrison, 2009), plethora of research from our group in pig (Pena et al., 2003, 2004, 2005 Spjuth et al., 2007 Fernando et al., 2003 Saravia et al.,2005, 2007,2009 De Ambrogi et al., 2006 ) bull (Bergquist et al., 2007 Nagy et al., 2004 Januskauskas et al., 2003 Bergqvist et al., 2007 Hallap et al., 2005, 2006) stallion ( Kavak et al., 2003 Morrell et al., 2008) channelise that newly unquestionable fluorescent fixture malicious gossips and techniques of take to the woods cytometry has do possible a to a greater extent(prenominal) than general abstract of semen quality at a biochemical, ultrastructural and functional level. Therefore, flow cytometry is the current technical solution for rapid, just reproducible assessment of sperm suspensions.In this review we have expound potentiality and scope of flow cytometry for the evaluation of semen, and the musical mode in which this technique send packing be utilize in clinical applications for andrology based on some of our previous experiences. explanation of flow cytometryThe exposition of a flow cytom eter is an instrument which measures the properties of cells in a flowing menses or an instrument that fundament measure physical, as well as multi-colour fluorescence properties of cells flowing in a stream.In an early(a)wise(prenominal) word, cytometry is a method which measure physical and chemical set aparts of cells or early(a) particles. Such a quantity is made when cells or other particles pass in unmarried file through some sort of step apparatus in a stream of fluid. The data obtained can be use to recognize and proctor biological processes and develop new methods and strategies for cell detection and quantification. Compared to other traditional analytical tools, where a exclusive value for each attribute is obtained for the whole population, flow cytometry provides data for each and either particle spy. As cells differ in their metabolic or physiological states, flow cytometry allows us not only to detect a ill-tempered cell lineament but also to find diffe rent subpopulations agree to their structural or physiological parameters.Flow cytometry is a technique for quantity components (cells) and the properties of individual cells in liquid suspension. In essence, suspended cells are brought to a detector, one by one, by means of a flow channel. Fluidic devices down the stairs laminar flow define the trajectories and velocities that cells traverse across the detector, and fluorescence, absorbance, and light drive awaying are among the cell properties that can be detected. Flow sorting allows individual cells to be take on the basis of their measured properties, and one to three or to a greater extent global properties of the cell can be measured. Flow cytometers and cell sorters devil use of one or more lighting sources and one or 2 fluorescent dyes to measure and characterize several thousands of cells per second. Flow cytometry presents fair game and precise results (Bunthof et al., 2001 Shleeva et al., 2002), which help to get over the troubles with the manual methods described above.Function and types of flow cytometryA flow cytometer is made of three main systems, fluidics, optics and electronics. ItI It can acquire data on all subpopulations within a sample, making it exaltation for assessment of heterogenous population, such as spermatozoa. The reading of flow cytometry to sperm assessment came in to function when it was utilise for measuring their DNA content (Evenson et al., 1980) and its application for analyzing semen has been increased rapidly in last decade. Flow cytometry is now applied for the evaluation semen such as sperm viability, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial function, capacitation status, membrane fluidity, DNA status and so on. unceasing innovation of new fluorescent slanders and techniques facilitated the flow cytometric evaluation of spermatozoa.Flow cytometry allows the observation of physical characteristics, such as cell size, shape and internal complexity, and any component or function of the spermatozoon that can be detected by a fluorochrome or fluorescently labeled compound. The analysis is objective, has a gamy level of data-based repeatability and has the advantage of being able to work with small sample sizes. Flow cytometry also has the capacity to detect labeling by multiple fluorochromes associated with individual spermatozoa, meaning that more than one sperm attribute can be assessed simultaneously. This let has an added benefit for semen analysis, as few single sperm parameters show significant correlation with cornucopia in vivo for semen within the bankable range of normality (Larsson and Rodriguez-Martinez, 2000) and it is the general statistics that the more sperm parameters can be tested, the more accurate the profuseness prediction turns (Amman and Hammerstedt, 1993).There are 2 main types of flow cytometers-analysers and sorters are in use. in concert with data accretion on cells, sorters have the potentiality to so rt cells with special(prenominal) properties (defined by the flow cytometer operator) to extremely towering purities. There are also a soma of commercial flow cytometers that have been develop for bad-tempered analytical requirements. Partec dumbfound a Ploidy Analyser and also a cubicle Counter Analyser. Optoflow has developed a flow cytometer for the rapid detection, characterization and enrolment of microorganisms. Luminex is developing engineering science for multiplexed analyte quantitation utilize a junto of microspheres, flow cytometry and high speed digital processing.Advantages of FC compared to other conventional techniques to explore sperm structure and function example of authentic assays in the fertility clinic and artificial insemination industries change magnitude day by day. In this respect, use of flow cytometry tycoon be an main(prenominal) endeavor to resolve su patch problem with so called commonly employ manual method for the semen analysis. An additional source of laboratory variation is the low number of sperms analyzed with such techniques. It is worth mentinign here that so called method crapper only with few hundred sperm. When we deal with such a few sperm population, there is a possibility that obtained result big businessman not be statistically significant (Russel and Curtis, 1993). The methods which are ofttimes apply are enable to determine sperm assiduousness (Jorgensen et al., 1997), motility or morphology only ( spin et al., 2002). Objectivity, cell number measured, speed of count and clearcutness are the advantages of flow cytometry to conventional light microscopy techniques (Spano and Evenson, 1993). The technique now a days has been utilise to determine a number of factors including those of acrosome status, membrane integrity, mitochondrial function as well as multiparameter measurement in human (Gar dischargeo et al., 2002). Flow cytometry has the ability to analyze thousands of cells in few minut es. In our serial publication of studies, we demonstrated the feasibleness and reproducibility of an automated method to evaluate sperm cell type, count, and viability in human boar samples. In our knock over, the preciseness of the flow cytometric analysis is fine in a diverse species (boar, bull, stallion etc), and the spy computer errors were significantly break up than those obtained from the so-called manual methods.Although there are diverse benefits of flow cytometer for the analysis of semen, feasibility of applying flow cytometry sometimes restricted to research worker ascribable to the high outlay and difficulties of operation associated with the requirement of a ingenious operator. kick upstairs, a flow cytometer is very life-size and cannot resist shocks associated with movement, and it also requires much space in the laboratory. Whatever may be the limitation, the development of more affordable bench-top flow cytometers in recent time raised the potential es sentialities to semen analysis.If the further application of flow cytometric analysis is considered further, it efficiency be seen that it is growing popularities as a technique for assessing more than one sperm attribute, simultaneously. Compared to traditional microscopic techniques, flow cytometry analysis is allowing to give a far more modify and objective method of semen analysis, especially in relation to salad dressing with acrosome reactivity potential of spermatozoa (Uhler et al., 1993 Purvis et al., 1990 Carver-Ward et al., 1996).A large number of different techniques to estimate sperm submergence have been reported. In the mid-1990s a series of fixed-depth spendable slides were evaluated as rapid and effective enchantments of equipment for the estimate of sperm submerging. Data from a number of preliminary studies proposed that, at least in the 20-mm-depth format, such domiciliate resulted in a noticeable underestimate of sperm preoccupancy compared to the atomi c number 79 standard (improved Neubauer hemocytometer). According to the World health organization that such chambers, whilst snug in that they can be utilise without dilution of the specimen, might lead to inaccuracy (World Health Organization, 1999). Data from Tomlinson and colleagues indicate that two proprietary disposable slides (Microcell, Conception Technologies, San Diego, kaliph Leja, Leja Products, BV Nieuw- Vennep, The Netherlands) can result in a disdain duckings of sperm compared to the hemocytometer method (Tomlinson et al., 2001). In contrast, plenty of reports document unacceptable differences among different laboratories and even amidst different individuals, although fewer studies attempt to credit these issues. So, what is wrong? return of semen quality testing has been emphasizing in some reports (Jorgensen et al., 1997 Keel et al., 2000). But due to low number of sperm evaluation by the conventional method results in poor reproducibility. These problem s might be overcome when using flow cytometry. The validation of method is a challenge due to its essentiality of having specific, precise, objective, and accurate evaluation to establish a correlation of fertility data or to predict potential of a semen sample accurately (Amann, 1989). In a fertility clinic, precision of data in big as the result of semen analysis is oftentimes used to manage fertility of a patient and manipulation of the unfertile couples. and then, it is principal(prenominal) to take into consideration within and amid laboratory variations for prospering infertility treatments.Sometimes its a matter of argument that compared to flow cytometry, fluorescent microscopy evaluate patterns of fluorescence rather than the fluorescence intensity. Flow cytometer has the lack of ability to come apart sperm asking a fluorescent marker bound to the equatorial segment or over one of the acrosomal membranes (Parinaud et al., 1993 Mortimer and Camenzind, 1989 Mortimer et al., 1987). Tao et al. (1993) compared flow cytometry and epifluorescent microscopy with various lectins and indicated that there is almost no difference between methodologies for detection of the acrosome reaction. However, it has been argued that lectins do not draw together specifically to the acrosomal neighborhood of the sperm (Purvis et al., 1990 Holden and Trounson, 1991) and that other binding sites can be easily lordly by epifluorescence microscopy, whereas flow cytometry identifies the signal from the entire sperm. specially, conventional light microscopic semen assessment is increasingly being replaced by fluorescent catching techniques, computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems, and flow cytometry (Pena et al., 2001 Verstegen et al., 2002). Additional advantages over existing techniques are that this approach is faster than the hemacytometer and that cellular detritus, fat droplets, and other particulate material in all-embracing semen are not erroneously counted as sperm, as a lot occurs with electronic cell reproductions. This method can also be used to determine the number of corpo existing cells in a semen sample.Application of flow cytometry for sperm count sperm count is an important predominant factor for the evaluation of sperm fertility potential.Accurate finale of sperm cell niggardliness is critical especially in AI industry because it provides assurance to customers that straws of extended semen contain the sperm numbers indicated which will help to conciliate appropriate catch a wink especially for pig. Accuracy of sperm count is a common problem in the andrological laboratories and accurate measure of sperm concentration is particularly important for export in which verification of numbers may be required. function sperm counts can help to identify possible processing errors within a specific batch of semen or on a particular day, should those errors occur. As sperm discipline procedures become more refined, routine count can be used to monitor subtle changes in daily semen processing that might appropriate the number of sperm packaged in a straw. Every time new and more accurate methods for the sperm count determinations are glide slope and being replaced by the older ones. Some laboratories are trying the Maklerm counting chamber (Seif- Medical, Haifa, Israel) and other improved hemacytometers, such as the MicroCellTM (Fertility Technologies, Inc., Natick, MA) however, these techniques will potential have standard lems analogous to those associated with the standard hemacytometers. Although hemacytometers are routinely used for sperm counts, due to the slow process and need for multiple measurements of each sample, the take on of error increase. Freund and Carol (ref) stated that a difference of 20% were not extraordinary between the determinations by the same technician. Electronic counters provide much more rapid counting, are easier to use, and give more repeatable results a mong technicians. However, those instruments tend to embarrass in the sperm count any somatic cells present, immature sperm forms, cytoplasmic droplets, debris, and bacteria, thereby inflating the concentration value (Ref). Spectrophotometer is late being used in the AI industries to assess sperm concentration by determine turbidity of a semen sample using an instrument antecedently calibrated for sperm concentration with a hemacytometer or Coulter counter (Ref). The accuracy of this method depends on the methods used for spectrophotometer calibration. Although, sperm concentration can also be determined by spectrophotometrically, the debris present in the raw semen crease problem with misestimation. spermatozoon number in the frozen thawed semen is difficult to ascertain as most of the extender contain egg yolk particles, fats and other particles which move measurement of sperm with electric cell counter or spectrophotometers (Evenson et al., 1993). On the other hand flow cytom etry created possibilities of a rapid determination of sperm number in a precise form. It is the flow cytometry which can down intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory variation and bout regarding sperm concentration assessment. Computer assisted semen analyzer is robust technique for analyzing sperm movement which can count sperm as well but such an analyzer most of the cases use some counting chamber or hemacytometer which itself can draw error. Although, hemacytometer was originally developed for kind cell counting, its use is now diverse including andrological laboratories for sperm counting. rough two-decade ago flow cytometry was suggested for sperm numbers in straws of cryopreserved bull semen. Christensen et al. (-) spy similar results for sperm count with flow cytometry and hemocytometer for a number of species. Now a day a simultaneous determination of sperm viability and sperm concentration is possible which can avoid the chance of occurring differences between ejaculat es star lack of coordination with field fertility and laboratory analyses. Thus the present technology is more precise which can get rid of variation from discourse the sperm sample and variation from pipetting and the analysis itself. Further, Prathalingam et al. (2006) reason out that there is similarities for sperm count result between flow cytometry and two newly approached method (image analysis and fluorescent photographic plate reader) for sperm counting. Though, use of fluorescent plate was emphasized due to low cost and allowing large number of cells counting from a large number of ejaculates.Although flow cytometry has become a worth(predicate) instrument for andrological determinations, it is also blamed that sperm concentration by flow cytometry signify a higher value than the real one. The possibility arise might be due to that semen samples often contain some alien materials such as immature germ cells, epithelial cells, blood cells, cytoplasmic droplet, cellular debris etc. In the same way, frozen semen has higher chance to introduce such material as they contain diluents components especially egg yolk particles. These particles and cell debris might have frontal and side light scatter parameters those are similar to spermatozoa. Such sperm-count-overestimation problem arisen in our cases also, especially when we deal with frozen semen. Further it is also claimed that flow cytometry has a tendency to overestimate workable spermatozoa. We are also experienced with such trouble which we system might be due to that egg particles of extender are considered as viable cell as for its detection pattern. Our yet to publish data indicate that this problem can be mimic by a centrifugation process and by using low concentration sample for evaluation with flow cytometry. Very recently Petrunkina and Harrison (2009) proposed a mathematical equation for fixing this flow cytometric sperm counting. Thus much research is going on and we fancy such edit ion will completely be resolved earnest future to get advantage from this robust technology for sperm counting.Flow cytometry for detecting sperm built-inness-Viability of spermatozoaThe viability of spermatozoa is a key determinant of sperm quality and prerequisite for successful fertilization. Viability of spermatozoa can be assessed by numerous methods, but many are slow and poorly repeatable and subjectively assess only century to 200 spermatozoa per ejaculate. Merkies et al. (2000) compared different methods of viability evaluation. They concluded that Eosin-nigrosin overestimate viability period fluorescent microscope and flow cytometry estimate similar trend of viability. Current flow cytometric procedures are able to simultaneously evaluate sperm cell viability together with some other attributes. This method has been successfully used for assessing spermatozoa viability in men ( get together and Johnson, 1995), bulls ( amass et al., 1994 Thomas et al., 1998), boars (Rodr guez-Martnez, 2007 Garner and Johnson, 1995 Garner et al., 1996), rams (Garner and Johnson, 1995), rabbits (Garner and Johnson, 1995), mice (Garner and Johnson, 1995 Songsasen et al., 1997), poultry and wildfowl (Donoghue et al., 1995 Blanco et al., 2000) and honey bees (Collins and Donoghue, 1999 Collins, 2000) and in tilt (Martin Flajshans et al., 2004).Considerable information has accumulated on the use of fluorescent staining protocols for assessing sperm viability (Evenson et al., 1982). The SYBR 14 staining of nucleic acids, especially in the sperm head, was very bright in brisk sperm. Good agreement was observed between the fluorescent staining method and the standard eosin-nigrosine viability test the flow cytometric method showed a precision level higher than that of the manual method.One of the first attempts to assess sperm viability utilized rhodamine 123 for determining potentiality of mitochondrial membrane objet dart ethidium bromide for membrane integrity through flow cytometry (Garner et al., 1986). Other combinations that have been used to turn up the functional capacity of sperm are carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and propidium iodide (PI) (Garner et al., 1988 Watson et al., 1992) carboxydimethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA), R123, and PI (Ericsson et al., 1993 Thomas and Garner, 1994) and PI, genus Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA), and R123 (Graham et al., 1990).The most generally used sperm viability stain combinations is SYBR-14 and PI at present. This stains are now sold commercially as live/ at peace(predicate) viability kit. When these two stains are combinely used, the nuclei of viable sperm take fluoresce reverse lightning and membrane integrity lost cells take red stain. This staining technique has been used in a number of species, including the boar (Garner and Johnson, 1995 Saravia et al.,2005, 2007,2009). Although species differences do exist in the function of spermatozoa, the Live/Dead stain may in like manner have no a dverse affect on fertilization in the equine, although it remains to be tested in this species. belatedly a new instrument (Nucelocounter-SP100) has been introduced to evaluate sperm concentration 11 and viability. collectible to the small size and low cost, this instrument has been attracted for field measurements of both concentration and viability. In our hand this instrument was also became useful for the quick measurement of sperm concentration and viability in stallion (Morrell et al., 2010).Fluorescent probes such as H33258, requiring flow cytometric analysis with a laser that operates in the ultraviolet light range, are slight commonly used as this is not a standard shoot a line on the smaller analytical machines. However, one utility(a) is to use a fluorometer. A fluorometer is a relatively low-cost piece of portable equipment that permits a rapid analysis to be carried out on a sample. Januskauskas et al. (2001) used H33258 to detect nonviable bull spermatozoa by fluo rometry and obtained an opponent correlation between the misused cells per cent and the field fertility. Another survival is fluorescent attachments for computer-assisted semen analysis devices. For example, the IDENT fluorescence feature of the Hamilton-Thorne IVOS permits staining with H33258 allowing an assessment of sperm viability to be made along with motility.Fluorochromes used to assess sperm viability by both approach could be utilized in combination with each other. In that case, when CFDA is used combined with PI, three populations of cells as live, which are green dead, which are red and a third population which is stained with both and represents dying spermatozoa can be identified. This combination was found useful by Almlid and Johnson (1988) for frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa for monitoring membrane damage at the time of evaluation of various frost protocols. Further, Harrison and Vickers (1990) also noticed that this combination with a fluorescent microscope is e ffective indicator of viability of fresh, incubated or cold-shocked spermatozoa in boar and ram. Contrasting to these, Garner et al. (1986) was failed to find a relationship between bull sperm viability and fertility when using combination of CFDA/PI .Flow cytometry for evaluating sperm viability appears to be a precious tool in the AI industry. When a high number of sperm is packed in each insemination dose, the effect of selecting the best ejaculates match to sperm viability has a relatively limited effect. However, sperm viability might be more important when combined with low-dose inseminations. The FACSCount AF flow cytometer also determines sperm concentration accurately and precisely during the same analysis (Christensen et al., 2004a). The combined assessment of sperm viability and concentration appears to be useful in the wake of improving quality control at AI station. Because of the results of this trial, this method has been implemented by danish pastry AI stations (C hristensen et al., 2005). Relatively bright fluorescence was found also in the mitochondrial sheath of living sperm. But the mechanism and mode of action by which SYBR-14 binds to the DNA of sperm is not known. It is know that PI stains nucleic acids by intercalating between the base pairs (Krishan, 1975). Viability stains can also be used in legal jointure with fluorescently labeled arrange lectins for simultaneous assessment of the plasma membrane integrity and the acrosome integrity (Nagy et al., 2003). It is imaginable that assessment of viability using SYBR-14 dye does not damage spermatozoa, since Garner et al. (5) found that insemination of boar sperm stained with SYBR-14 did not agree fertilization or even the development of flushed porcine embryos in vitro.Non-viable sperms can be detected using the membrane-impermeable nucleic acid stains which positively identify dead spermatozoa by penetrating cells with damaged membranes. Plasma membrane which is intact will not per mit these stains entering into the spermatozoa and staining the nucleus. Most frequently used stains take on phenanthridines, for example propidium iodide (PI (Matyus, 1984) ethidium homodimer-1 (EthD-1 (Althouse et al., 1995), the cyanine Yo-Pro (Kavak, 2003) and the bizbenzimidazole Hoechst 33258 (Gundersen and Shapiro, 1984). After a series of comparing between fertility of cryopreserved stallion spermatozoa with a number of laboratory assessments of semen quality as assessed by flow cytometry using PI, Wilhelm et al. (1996) concluded that viability is the single laboratory assay that correlated with fertility.-Sperm plasma membrane integrityAlthough the sperm plasma membrane covers the entire cell, it consists of three distinct membrane compartments, one which covers the outer acrosomal membrane, one which covers the post acrosomal portion of the sperm head, and one which covers the center of attention and principal pieces. Sperm membrane is directly or indFlow Cytometry for the Evaluation of SemenFlow Cytometry for the Evaluation of SemenState of the Art in Sperm Assessment Using Flow CytometryAbstractFlow cytometry is emerging as a substantial tool in the domain of modern andrology for the routine analysis of spermatozoa. Recent application of flow cytometry in the artificial insemination industry especially for pig is a new approach. Until very recent, analysis of semen samples was routinely performed by microscopical evaluation and manual techniques by laboratory operators analysis is inclined due to comprehensive variability among observers, influencing its clinical validity. During last decade, to evaluate farm animal semen, variety of new flow cytometric techniques have been intercalated which made possible a wide spread evaluation of several sperm functionality and characteristics. Here in this paper, an initiative has been taken to explore numerous current flow cytometry developments pressing for andrological tests.After the invention of flow c ytometry, sperm evaluation by traditional (microscopic) means became questioned and avoided due to the robust advantages of flow cytometry over the microscopic methods. By the recent development of diverse fluroscence probes, flow cytometry became capable of analyzing number of sperm characteristics like viability, capacitation, acrosomal integrity, membrane permeability, membrane integrity, mitochondrial status, DNA integrity, decondensation of DNA and differences between gametes based on sex. The application of flow cytometry to their detection allows increased numbers of spermatozoa to be assessed over a short time-period, provides the opportunity of working with small sample sizes, increases the repeatability of data obtained, removes the subjectivity of evaluation and allows simultaneous assessment of multiple fluorochromes. Thus, flow cytometry is a technique capable of generating significantly novel data and allows the design and execution of experiments that are not yet poss ible with any other technique. Nowadays, semen evaluation using laboratory analyses is very meaningful to the artificial insemination industry to provide the most desired quality product to customers.Future development of flow cytometric techniques will permit further advances both in our knowledge and in the improvement of assisted reproduction techniques. In this paper, the main semen attributes that can be analyzed with fluorochromes and adapted for use with a flow cytometer will be reviewed and the relationship of these tests to fertility will be discussed.IntroductionUp to now, semen evaluation is considered as the most important laboratory test that has enabled us to identify and predict clear-cut cases of fertility (Jarow et al., 2002), infertility or even of potential sub-fertility (Rodrguez-Martnez, 2007). Determination of the potential fertility of semen sample and, in the long run, of the male from which it has been collected is the ultimate goal of semen evaluations in c linically healthy sires. Now a days, many methods for the estimate the possible fertilizing capacity of a semen sample and, or in the word, of the male (reviewed by Dziuk 1996 Rodrguez-Martnez et al. 1997a Rodrguez-Martnez and Larsson 1998 Saacke et al. 1998 Larsson and Rodrguez-Martnez 2000 Rodrguez- Martnez 2000, 2003 Popwell and Flowers 2004 Graham and Moc 2005 Gillan et al. 2005) are existing. The methods routinely accustomed for evaluation of the quality of a semen sample involved an evaluation of general appearance, volume, pH, sperm concentration, viability, morphology and motility. Most of these evaluations are based on microscopic analyses that only measure relatively a few numbers of spermatozoa within a population. In most of the cases, these are time-consuming results obtained are controversial and are not translatable. It should also be noted that such conventional techniques are apt to extreme inter-ejaculate variation, even when the laboratory methodology has been sta ndardized. In the wake of this information, new opportunities have arisen for the development of methods for the diagnosis of male infertility, many of which have been shown to exhibit a prognostic value that eludes conventional semen profiling. Moreover, ejaculated spermatozoa are nowadays handled for use in assisted reproductive technologies, such as the artificial insemination of chilled, frozen-thawed or sexed semen, and IVF. During this long processes, number of steps like semen extension, fluorophore loading, ultraviolet and laser illumination, high-speed sorting, cooling and cryopreservation are followed, which create a scope to impose different degrees of change in sperm functionality followed by suffer of damage to sperm membranes, organelles or the DNA content. Therefore, although several assays have been developed to monitor these sperm parameters, recently it is being claimed by many groups that buck of those so-called procedures are incomplete, time consuming and labori ous.Flow cytometry in diverse technical applications proposes many advantages for the analysis of sperm quality. Flow cytometry is a method where multiple fluorescences and light scattering can be induced allowing single cell or particles illumination in suspension while they flow very rapidly through a sensing area. The increasing use over the past decade of flow cytometry in the leading laboratories in human and veterinary andrology has dramatically increased our knowledge of sperm function under physiological and biotechnological conditions. Flow cytometers is capable to acquire data from several subpopulations within a sample in a few minutes, making it perfect for assessing heterogenous populations in a semen sample. Flow cytometry was initially developed in the 1960s, after that flow cytometry is performing automated separation of cells based on the unique recognition of cellular patterns in a population feasible (Hulett et al., 1969). Likewise, cellular patterns can be recogn ized by utilizing such a separation approach, in each cells within a population (Baumgarth and Roederer, 2000 Herzenberg et al., 2006).The first notion of flow cytometry development was for medical and clinical applications such as haematology and oncology. Although still much research is going on these medical areas and account for the vast majority of publications on this robust technique, but during the past few years it is being used in a diverse areas, such as bioprocess monitoring, pharmacology, toxicology, environmental sciences, bacteriology and virology. in concert with elevated use in many areas, recent advancement of flow cytometry increased its application in the reproductive biology especially for andrology. Although flow cytometry may overestimate the population of unlabelled cells (Petrunkina and Harrison, 2009), plethora of research from our group in pig (Pena et al., 2003, 2004, 2005 Spjuth et al., 2007 Fernando et al., 2003 Saravia et al.,2005, 2007,2009 De Ambrogi et al., 2006 ) bull (Bergquist et al., 2007 Nagy et al., 2004 Januskauskas et al., 2003 Bergqvist et al., 2007 Hallap et al., 2005, 2006) stallion ( Kavak et al., 2003 Morrell et al., 2008) indicate that newly developed fluorescent stains and techniques of flow cytometry has made possible a more widespread analysis of semen quality at a biochemical, ultrastructural and functional level. Therefore, flow cytometry is the current technical solution for rapid, precisely reproducible assessment of sperm suspensions.In this review we have described potentiality and scope of flow cytometry for the evaluation of semen, and the way in which this technique can be used in clinical applications for andrology based on some of our previous experiences.Definition of flow cytometryThe definition of a flow cytometer is an instrument which measures the properties of cells in a flowing stream or an instrument that can measure physical, as well as multi-colour fluorescence properties of cells flowing in a stream.In other word, cytometry is a method which measure physical and chemical attributes of cells or other particles. Such a measurement is made when cells or other particles pass in single file through some sort of measuring apparatus in a stream of fluid. The data obtained can be used to understand and monitor biological processes and develop new methods and strategies for cell detection and quantification. Compared to other traditional analytical tools, where a single value for each attribute is obtained for the whole population, flow cytometry provides data for each and every particle detected. As cells differ in their metabolic or physiological states, flow cytometry allows us not only to detect a particular cell type but also to find different subpopulations according to their structural or physiological parameters.Flow cytometry is a technique for measuring components (cells) and the properties of individual cells in liquid suspension. In essence, suspended cells are b rought to a detector, one by one, by means of a flow channel. Fluidic devices under laminar flow define the trajectories and velocities that cells traverse across the detector, and fluorescence, absorbance, and light scattering are among the cell properties that can be detected. Flow sorting allows individual cells to be sorted on the basis of their measured properties, and one to three or more global properties of the cell can be measured. Flow cytometers and cell sorters make use of one or more excitation sources and one or two fluorescent dyes to measure and characterize several thousands of cells per second. Flow cytometry presents objective and precise results (Bunthof et al., 2001 Shleeva et al., 2002), which help to overcome the problems with the manual methods described above.Function and types of flow cytometryA flow cytometer is made of three main systems, fluidics, optics and electronics. ItI It can acquire data on all subpopulations within a sample, making it ideal for a ssessment of heterogenous population, such as spermatozoa. The adaptation of flow cytometry to sperm assessment came in to function when it was used for measuring their DNA content (Evenson et al., 1980) and its application for analyzing semen has been increased rapidly in last decade. Flow cytometry is now applied for the evaluation semen such as sperm viability, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial function, capacitation status, membrane fluidity, DNA status and so on. Continuous innovation of new fluorescent stains and techniques facilitated the flow cytometric evaluation of spermatozoa.Flow cytometry allows the observation of physical characteristics, such as cell size, shape and internal complexity, and any component or function of the spermatozoon that can be detected by a fluorochrome or fluorescently labeled compound. The analysis is objective, has a high level of experimental repeatability and has the advantage of being able to work with small sample sizes. Flow cytometry als o has the capacity to detect labeling by multiple fluorochromes associated with individual spermatozoa, meaning that more than one sperm attribute can be assessed simultaneously. This feature has an added benefit for semen analysis, as few single sperm parameters show significant correlation with fertility in vivo for semen within the acceptable range of normality (Larsson and Rodriguez-Martinez, 2000) and it is the general statistics that the more sperm parameters can be tested, the more accurate the fertility prediction becomes (Amman and Hammerstedt, 1993).There are two main types of flow cytometers-analysers and sorters are in use. Together with data collection on cells, sorters have the potentiality to sort cells with particular properties (defined by the flow cytometer operator) to extremely high purities. There are also a number of commercial flow cytometers that have been developed for particular analytical requirements. Partec manufacture a Ploidy Analyser and also a Cell C ounter Analyser. Optoflow has developed a flow cytometer for the rapid detection, characterization and enumeration of microorganisms. Luminex is developing technology for multiplexed analyte quantitation using a combination of microspheres, flow cytometry and high speed digital processing.Advantages of FC compared to other conventional techniques to explore sperm structure and functionUse of authentic assays in the fertility clinic and artificial insemination industries increasing day by day. In this respect, use of flow cytometry might be an important attempt to resolve sustaining problem with so called commonly used manual method for the semen analysis. An additional source of laboratory variation is the low number of sperms analyzed with such techniques. It is worth mentinign here that so called method deal only with few hundred sperm. When we deal with such a few sperm population, there is a possibility that obtained result might not be statistically significant (Russel and Curt is, 1993). The methods which are frequently used are enable to determine sperm concentration (Jorgensen et al., 1997), motility or morphology only (Keel et al., 2002). Objectivity, cell number measured, speed of count and precision are the advantages of flow cytometry to conventional light microscopy techniques (Spano and Evenson, 1993). The technique now a days has been used to determine a number of factors including those of acrosome status, membrane integrity, mitochondrial function as well as multiparameter measurement in human (Garrido et al., 2002). Flow cytometry has the ability to analyze thousands of cells in few minutes. In our series of studies, we demonstrated the feasibility and reproducibility of an automated method to evaluate sperm cell type, count, and viability in human boar samples. In our hand, the precision of the flow cytometric analysis is satisfactory in a diverse species (boar, bull, stallion etc), and the observed errors were significantly better than those obtained from the so-called manual methods.Although there are diverse benefits of flow cytometer for the analysis of semen, feasibility of applying flow cytometry sometimes restricted to researcher due to the high outlay and difficulties of operation associated with the requirement of a skilled operator. Further, a flow cytometer is very large and cannot resist shocks associated with movement, and it also requires much space in the laboratory. Whatever may be the limitation, the development of more affordable bench-top flow cytometers in recent time raised the potential essentialities to semen analysis.If the further application of flow cytometric analysis is considered further, it might be seen that it is growing popularities as a technique for assessing more than one sperm attribute, simultaneously. Compared to traditional microscopic techniques, flow cytometry analysis is allowing to give a far more simplified and objective method of semen analysis, especially in relation to fer tilization with acrosome reactivity potential of spermatozoa (Uhler et al., 1993 Purvis et al., 1990 Carver-Ward et al., 1996).A large number of different techniques to estimate sperm concentration have been reported. In the mid-1990s a series of fixed-depth disposable slides were evaluated as rapid and effective pieces of equipment for the estimate of sperm concentration. Data from a number of preliminary studies proposed that, at least in the 20-mm-depth format, such chambers resulted in a noticeable underestimate of sperm concentration compared to the gold standard (improved Neubauer hemocytometer). According to the World Health Organization that such chambers, whilst convenient in that they can be used without dilution of the specimen, might lead to inaccuracy (World Health Organization, 1999). Data from Tomlinson and colleagues indicate that two proprietary disposable slides (Microcell, Conception Technologies, San Diego, Calif Leja, Leja Products, BV Nieuw- Vennep, The Netherl ands) can result in a lower concentrations of sperm compared to the hemocytometer method (Tomlinson et al., 2001). In contrast, plenty of reports document unacceptable differences between different laboratories and even between different individuals, although fewer studies attempt to address these issues. So, what is wrong?Improvement of semen quality testing has been emphasizing in some reports (Jorgensen et al., 1997 Keel et al., 2000). But due to low number of sperm evaluation by the conventional method results in poor reproducibility. These problems might be overcome when using flow cytometry. The validation of method is a challenge due to its essentiality of having specific, precise, objective, and accurate evaluation to establish a correlation of fertility data or to predict potential of a semen sample accurately (Amann, 1989). In a fertility clinic, precision of data in important as the result of semen analysis is frequently used to manage fertility of a patient and treatment of the unfertile couples. Thus, it is important to take into consideration within and between laboratory variations for successful infertility treatments.Sometimes its a matter of argument that compared to flow cytometry, fluorescent microscopy evaluate patterns of fluorescence rather than the fluorescence intensity. Flow cytometer has the lack of ability to discriminate sperm containing a fluorescent marker bound to the equatorial segment or over one of the acrosomal membranes (Parinaud et al., 1993 Mortimer and Camenzind, 1989 Mortimer et al., 1987). Tao et al. (1993) compared flow cytometry and epifluorescent microscopy with various lectins and indicated that there is almost no difference between methodologies for detection of the acrosome reaction. However, it has been argued that lectins do not bind specifically to the acrosomal region of the sperm (Purvis et al., 1990 Holden and Trounson, 1991) and that other binding sites can be easily distinguished by epifluorescence micros copy, whereas flow cytometry identifies the signal from the entire sperm.Additionally, conventional light microscopic semen assessment is increasingly being replaced by fluorescent staining techniques, computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems, and flow cytometry (Pena et al., 2001 Verstegen et al., 2002). Additional advantages over existing techniques are that this approach is faster than the hemacytometer and that cellular debris, fat droplets, and other particulate material in extended semen are not erroneously counted as sperm, as often occurs with electronic cell counters. This method can also be used to determine the number of somatic cells in a semen sample.Application of flow cytometry for sperm countSperm count is an important predominant factor for the evaluation of sperm fertility potential.Accurate determination of sperm cell concentration is critical especially in AI industry because it provides assurance to customers that straws of extended semen contain the sper m numbers indicated which will help to decide appropriate doze especially for pig. Accuracy of sperm count is a common problem in the andrological laboratories and accurate measure of sperm concentration is particularly important for export in which verification of numbers may be required. Routine sperm counts can help to identify possible processing errors within a specific batch of semen or on a particular day, should those errors occur. As sperm counting procedures become more refined, routine counting can be used to monitor subtle changes in daily semen processing that might affect the number of sperm packaged in a straw. Every time new and more accurate methods for the sperm count determinations are coming and being replaced by the older ones. Some laboratories are trying the Maklerm counting chamber (Seif- Medical, Haifa, Israel) and other improved hemacytometers, such as the MicroCellTM (Fertility Technologies, Inc., Natick, MA) however, these techniques will likely have stan dard lems similar to those associated with the standard hemacytometers. Although hemacytometers are routinely used for sperm counts, due to the slow process and need for multiple measurements of each sample, the chance of error increase. Freund and Carol (ref) stated that a difference of 20% were not unusual between the determinations by the same technician. Electronic counters provide much more rapid counting, are easier to use, and give more repeatable results among technicians. However, those instruments tend to include in the sperm count any somatic cells present, immature sperm forms, cytoplasmic droplets, debris, and bacteria, thereby inflating the concentration value (Ref). Spectrophotometer is recently being used in the AI industries to assess sperm concentration by determining turbidity of a semen sample using an instrument previously calibrated for sperm concentration with a hemacytometer or Coulter counter (Ref). The accuracy of this method depends on the methods used for spectrophotometer calibration. Although, sperm concentration can also be determined by spectrophotometrically, the debris present in the raw semen crease problem with misestimation. Sperm number in the frozen thawed semen is difficult to ascertain as most of the extender contain egg yolk particles, fats and other particles which affect measurement of sperm with electric cell counter or spectrophotometers (Evenson et al., 1993). On the other hand flow cytometry created possibilities of a rapid determination of sperm number in a precise form. It is the flow cytometry which can reduce intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory variation and conflict regarding sperm concentration assessment. Computer assisted semen analyzer is robust technique for analyzing sperm movement which can count sperm as well but such an analyzer most of the cases use some counting chamber or hemacytometer which itself can generate error. Although, hemacytometer was originally developed for blood cell counting, its use is now diverse including andrological laboratories for sperm counting.Around two-decade ago flow cytometry was suggested for sperm numbers in straws of cryopreserved bull semen. Christensen et al. (-) observed similar results for sperm count with flow cytometry and hemocytometer for a number of species. Now a day a simultaneous determination of sperm viability and sperm concentration is possible which can avoid the chance of occurring differences between ejaculates leading lack of coordination with field fertility and laboratory analyses. Thus the present technology is more precise which can get rid of variation from handling the sperm sample and variation from pipetting and the analysis itself. Further, Prathalingam et al. (2006) concluded that there is similarities for sperm count result between flow cytometry and two newly approached method (image analysis and fluorescent plate reader) for sperm counting. Though, use of fluorescent plate was emphasized due to low cost and al lowing large number of cells counting from a large number of ejaculates.Although flow cytometry has become a valuable instrument for andrological determinations, it is also blamed that sperm concentration by flow cytometry signify a higher value than the real one. The possibility arise might be due to that semen samples often contain some alien materials such as immature germ cells, epithelial cells, blood cells, cytoplasmic droplet, cellular debris etc. In the same way, frozen semen has higher chance to introduce such material as they contain diluents components especially egg yolk particles. These particles and cell debris might have frontal and side light scatter parameters those are similar to spermatozoa. Such sperm-count-overestimation problem arisen in our cases also, especially when we deal with frozen semen. Further it is also claimed that flow cytometry has a tendency to overestimate viable spermatozoa. We are also experienced with such trouble which we guess might be due to that egg particles of extender are considered as viable cell as for its staining pattern. Our yet to publish data indicate that this problem can be mimic by a centrifugation process and by using low concentration sample for evaluation with flow cytometry. Very recently Petrunkina and Harrison (2009) proposed a mathematical equation for fixing this flow cytometric sperm counting. Thus much research is going on and we hope such discrepancy will completely be resolved near future to get advantage from this robust technology for sperm counting.Flow cytometry for detecting sperm intactness-Viability of spermatozoaThe viability of spermatozoa is a key determinant of sperm quality and prerequisite for successful fertilization. Viability of spermatozoa can be assessed by numerous methods, but many are slow and poorly repeatable and subjectively assess only 100 to 200 spermatozoa per ejaculate. Merkies et al. (2000) compared different methods of viability evaluation. They concluded that E osin-nigrosin overestimate viability while fluorescent microscope and flow cytometry estimate similar trend of viability. Current flow cytometric procedures are able to simultaneously evaluate sperm cell viability together with some other attributes. This method has been successfully used for assessing spermatozoa viability in men (Garner and Johnson, 1995), bulls (Garner et al., 1994 Thomas et al., 1998), boars (Rodrguez-Martnez, 2007 Garner and Johnson, 1995 Garner et al., 1996), rams (Garner and Johnson, 1995), rabbits (Garner and Johnson, 1995), mice (Garner and Johnson, 1995 Songsasen et al., 1997), poultry and wildfowl (Donoghue et al., 1995 Blanco et al., 2000) and honey bees (Collins and Donoghue, 1999 Collins, 2000) and in fish (Martin Flajshans et al., 2004).Considerable information has accumulated on the use of fluorescent staining protocols for assessing sperm viability (Evenson et al., 1982). The SYBR 14 staining of nucleic acids, especially in the sperm head, was very bright in living sperm. Good agreement was observed between the fluorescent staining method and the standard eosin-nigrosine viability test the flow cytometric method showed a precision level higher than that of the manual method.One of the first attempts to assess sperm viability utilized rhodamine 123 for determining potentiality of mitochondrial membrane while ethidium bromide for membrane integrity through flow cytometry (Garner et al., 1986). Other combinations that have been used to examine the functional capacity of sperm are carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and propidium iodide (PI) (Garner et al., 1988 Watson et al., 1992) carboxydimethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA), R123, and PI (Ericsson et al., 1993 Thomas and Garner, 1994) and PI, pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA), and R123 (Graham et al., 1990).The most generally used sperm viability stain combinations is SYBR-14 and PI at present. This stains are now sold commercially as live/dead viability kit. When these two stains are combinely used, the nuclei of viable sperm take fluoresce green and membrane integrity lost cells take red stain. This staining technique has been used in a number of species, including the boar (Garner and Johnson, 1995 Saravia et al.,2005, 2007,2009). Although species differences do exist in the function of spermatozoa, the Live/Dead stain may similarly have no adverse affect on fertilization in the equine, although it remains to be tested in this species. Recently a new instrument (Nucelocounter-SP100) has been introduced to evaluate sperm concentration 11 and viability. Due to the small size and low cost, this instrument has been attracted for field measurements of both concentration and viability. In our hand this instrument was also became useful for the quick measurement of sperm concentration and viability in stallion (Morrell et al., 2010).Fluorescent probes such as H33258, requiring flow cytometric analysis with a laser that operates in the ultraviolet light range, ar e less commonly used as this is not a standard feature on the smaller analytical machines. However, one alternative is to use a fluorometer. A fluorometer is a relatively low-cost piece of portable equipment that permits a rapid analysis to be carried out on a sample. Januskauskas et al. (2001) used H33258 to detect nonviable bull spermatozoa by fluorometry and obtained an inverse correlation between the damaged cells per cent and the field fertility. Another option is fluorescent attachments for computer-assisted semen analysis devices. For example, the IDENT fluorescence feature of the Hamilton-Thorne IVOS permits staining with H33258 allowing an assessment of sperm viability to be made along with motility.Fluorochromes used to assess sperm viability by both approach could be utilized in combination with each other. In that case, when CFDA is used combined with PI, three populations of cells as live, which are green dead, which are red and a third population which is stained with both and represents dying spermatozoa can be identified. This combination was found useful by Almlid and Johnson (1988) for frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa for monitoring membrane damage at the time of evaluation of various freezing protocols. Further, Harrison and Vickers (1990) also noticed that this combination with a fluorescent microscope is effective indicator of viability of fresh, incubated or cold-shocked spermatozoa in boar and ram. Contrasting to these, Garner et al. (1986) was failed to find a relationship between bull sperm viability and fertility when using combination of CFDA/PI .Flow cytometry for evaluating sperm viability appears to be a precious tool in the AI industry. When a high number of sperm is packed in each insemination dose, the effect of selecting the best ejaculates according to sperm viability has a relatively limited effect. However, sperm viability might be more important when combined with low-dose inseminations. The FACSCount AF flow cytometer also determines sperm concentration accurately and precisely during the same analysis (Christensen et al., 2004a). The combined assessment of sperm viability and concentration appears to be useful in the wake of improving quality control at AI stations. Because of the results of this trial, this method has been implemented by Danish AI stations (Christensen et al., 2005). Relatively bright fluorescence was found also in the mitochondrial sheath of living sperm. But the mechanism and mode of action by which SYBR-14 binds to the DNA of sperm is not known. It is know that PI stains nucleic acids by intercalating between the base pairs (Krishan, 1975). Viability stains can also be used in conjugation with fluorescently labeled plant lectins for simultaneous assessment of the plasma membrane integrity and the acrosome integrity (Nagy et al., 2003). It is conceivable that assessment of viability using SYBR-14 dye does not damage spermatozoa, since Garner et al. (5) found that insemination of b oar sperm stained with SYBR-14 did not compromise fertilization or even the development of flushed porcine embryos in vitro.Non-viable sperms can be detected using the membrane-impermeable nucleic acid stains which positively identify dead spermatozoa by penetrating cells with damaged membranes. Plasma membrane which is intact will not permit these stains entering into the spermatozoa and staining the nucleus. Most frequently used stains include phenanthridines, for example propidium iodide (PI (Matyus, 1984) ethidium homodimer-1 (EthD-1 (Althouse et al., 1995), the cyanine Yo-Pro (Kavak, 2003) and the bizbenzimidazole Hoechst 33258 (Gundersen and Shapiro, 1984). After a series of comparison between fertility of cryopreserved stallion spermatozoa with a number of laboratory assessments of semen quality as assessed by flow cytometry using PI, Wilhelm et al. (1996) concluded that viability is the single laboratory assay that correlated with fertility.-Sperm plasma membrane integrityAl though the sperm plasma membrane covers the entire cell, it consists of three distinct membrane compartments, one which covers the outer acrosomal membrane, one which covers the post acrosomal portion of the sperm head, and one which covers the middle and principal pieces. Sperm membrane is directly or ind